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Ca ch up o Back o Hogwa s 2023

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Ha y Po e

Ha y Po e is a se ies of seve fa asy ovels w i e by B i ish au ho J. K. Rowli g. The ovels ch o icle he lives of a you g wiza d, Ha y Po e , a d his f ie ds He mio e G a ge a d Ro Weasley, all of whom a e s ude s a Hogwa s School of Wi chc af a d Wiza d y. The mai s o y a c co ce s Ha y’s co flic wi h Lo d Voldemo , a da k wiza d who i e ds o become immo al, ove h ow he wiza d gove i g body k ow as he Mi is y of Magic a d subjuga e all wiza ds a d Muggles ( o -magical people).

The se ies was o igi ally published i E glish by Bloomsbu y i he U i ed Ki gdom a d Scholas ic P ess i he U i ed S a es. A se ies of ma y ge es, i cludi g fa asy, d ama, comi g-of-age fic io , a d he B i ish school s o y (which i cludes eleme s of mys e y, h ille , adve u e, ho o , a d oma ce), he wo ld of Ha y Po e explo es ume ous hemes a d i cludes ma y cul u al mea i gs a d efe e ces.1 Acco di g o Rowli g, he mai heme is dea h.2 O he majo hemes i he se ies i clude p ejudice, co up io , a d mad ess.3

Si ce he elease of he fi s ovel, Ha y Po e a d he Philosophe ‘s S o e, o 26 Ju e 1997, he books have fou d imme se popula i y, posi ive eviews, a d comme cial success wo ldwide. They have a ac ed a wide adul audie ce as well as you ge eade s a d a e widely co side ed co e s o es of mode li e a u e.45 As of Feb ua y 2023upda e, he books have sold mo e ha 600 millio copies wo ldwide, maki g hem he bes -selli g book se ies i his o y, a d have bee available i 85 la guages.6 The las fou books co secu ively se eco ds as he fas es -selli g books i his o y, wi h he fi al i s alme selli g oughly 2.7 millio copies i he U i ed Ki gdom a d 8.3 millio copies i he U i ed S a es wi hi we y-fou hou s of i s elease.

The o igi al seve books we e adap ed i o a eigh -pa amesake film se ies by Wa e B os. Pic u es. I 2016, he o al value of he Ha y Po e f a chise was es ima ed a $25 billio ,7 maki g Ha y Po e o e of he highes -g ossi g media f a chises of all ime. Ha y Po e a d he Cu sed Child is a play based o a s o y co-w i e by Rowli g.

The success of he books a d films has allowed he Ha y Po e f a chise o expa d wi h ume ous de iva ive wo ks, a avelli g exhibi io ha p emie ed i Chicago i 2009, a s udio ou i Lo do ha ope ed i 2012, a digi al pla fo m o which J. K. Rowli g upda es he se ies wi h ew i fo ma io a d i sigh , a d a pe alogy of spi -off films p emie i g i Novembe 2016 wi h Fa as ic Beas s a d Whe e o Fi d Them, amo g ma y o he developme s. Themed a ac io s, collec ively k ow as The Wiza di g Wo ld of Ha y Po e , have bee buil a seve al U ive sal Des i a io s Expe ie ces amuseme pa ks a ou d he wo ld.

Plo

Ea ly yea s

The se ies follows he life of a boy amed Ha y Po e . I he fi s book, Ha y Po e a d he Philosophe ‘s S o e, Ha y lives i a cupboa d u de he s ai s i he house of he Du sleys, his au , u cle a d cousi , Dudley. The Du sleys co side hemselves pe fec ly o mal, bu a he age of 11, Ha y discove s ha he is a wiza d. He mee s a half-gia amed Hag id who i vi es him o a e d he Hogwa s School of Wi chc af a d Wiza d y. Ha y lea s ha as a baby, his pa e s we e mu de ed by he da k wiza d Lo d Voldemo . Whe Voldemo a emp ed o kill Ha y, his cu se ebou ded a d Ha y su vived wi h a ligh i g-shaped sca o his fo ehead.

Ha y becomes a s ude a Hogwa s a d is so ed i o G yffi do House. He gai s he f ie dship of Ro Weasley, a membe of a la ge bu poo wiza di g family, a d He mio e G a ge , a wi ch of o -magical, o Muggle, pa e age. Ha y e cou e s he school’s po io s mas e , Seve us S ape, who displays a dislike fo him; he ich pu e-blood D aco Malfoy whom he develops a e mi y wi h; a d he Defe ce Agai s he Da k A s eache , Qui i us Qui ell, who u s ou o be allied wi h Lo d Voldemo . The fi s book co cludes wi h Ha y’s co f o a io wi h Voldemo , who, i his ques o egai a body, yea s o gai he powe of he Philosophe ‘s S o e, a subs a ce ha bes ows eve las i g life.

Ha y Po e a d he Chambe of Sec e s desc ibes Ha y’s seco d yea a Hogwa s. S ude s a e a acked a d pe ified by a u k ow c ea u e; wiza ds of Muggle pa e age a e he p ima y a ge s. The a acks appea ela ed o he Chambe of Sec e s, a fif y-yea -old mys e y a he school. Ha y discove s a abili y o speak he s ake la guage Pa sel o gue, which he lea s is a e a d associa ed wi h he Da k A s. Whe He mio e is a acked, Ha y a d Ro u cove he chambe ‘s sec e s a d e e i . Ha y discove s ha he chambe was ope ed by Ro ‘s you ge sis e , Gi y Weasley, who was possessed by a old dia y i he belo gi gs. The memo y of Tom Ma volo Riddle, Voldemo ‘s you ge self, esided i side he dia y a d u leashed he basilisk, a a cie mo s e ha kills hose who make di ec eye co ac . Ha y d aws he Swo d of G yffi do f om he So i g Ha , slays he basilisk a d des oys he dia y.

I he hi d ovel, Ha y Po e a d he P iso e of Azkaba , Ha y lea s ha he is a ge ed by Si ius Black, a escaped co vic who allegedly assis ed i his pa e s’ mu de . As Ha y s uggles wi h his eac io o he deme o s – c ea u es gua di g he school ha feed o despai – he eaches ou o Remus Lupi , a ew p ofesso who eaches him he Pa o us cha m. O a wi dy igh , Ro is d agged by a black dog i o he Sh ieki g Shack; Ha y a d He mio e follow. The dog is evealed o be Si ius Black. Lupi e e s he shack a d explai s ha Black was James Po e ‘s bes f ie d; he was f amed by a o he f ie d of James’, Pe e Pe ig ew, who hides as Ro ‘s pe a , Scabbe s. As he full moo ises, Lupi a sfo ms i o a we ewolf a d bou ds away; he g oup chase af e him bu a e su ou ded by deme o s. They a e saved by a mys e ious figu e who cas s a s ag Pa o us. This is la e evealed o be a fu u e ve sio of Ha y, who aveled back i ime wi h He mio e usi g he Time Tu e . The duo help Si ius escape o a Hippog iff.

Voldemo e u s

I Ha y’s fou h yea of school (de ailed i Ha y Po e a d he Goble of Fi e), he is u willi gly e e ed i he T iwiza d Tou ame , a co es be wee schools of wi chc af a d wiza d y. Ha y is Hogwa s’ seco d pa icipa af e Ced ic Diggo y, a u usual occu e ce ha causes his f ie ds o dis a ce hemselves f om him. He compe es agai s schools Beauxba o s a d Du ms a g wi h he help of he ew Defe ce Agai s he Da k A s p ofesso , Alas o Mad-Eye Moody. Ha y claims he T iwiza d Cup wi h Ced ic, bu i doi g so is elepo ed o a g aveya d whe e Voldemo ‘s suppo e s co ve e. Moody eveals himself be o Ba y C ouch, J , a Dea h Ea e . Ha y ma ages o escape, bu Ced ic is killed a d Voldemo is esu ec ed usi g Ha y’s blood.

I he fif h book, Ha y Po e a d he O de of he Phoe ix, he Mi is y of Magic efuses o believe ha Voldemo has e u ed. Dumbledo e e-ac iva es he O de of he Phoe ix, a sec e socie y o cou e Voldemo ; mea while, he Mi is y appoi s Dolo es Umb idge as he High I quisi o of Hogwa s. Umb idge ba s he Defe ce Agai s he Da k A s; i espo se, He mio e a d Ro fo m Dumbledo e’s A my, a sec e g oup whe e Ha y eaches wha Umb idge fo bids. Ha y is pu ished fo disobeyi g Umb idge, a d d eams of a da k co ido i he Mi is y of Magic. Nea he e d of he book, Ha y falsely d eams of Si ius bei g o u ed; he aces o he Mi is y whe e he faces Dea h Ea e s. The O de of he Phoe ix saves he ee age s’ lives, bu Si ius is killed. A p ophecy co ce i g Ha y a d Voldemo is he evealed: o e mus die a he ha ds of he o he .

I he six h book, Ha y Po e a d he Half-Blood P i ce, S ape eaches Defe ce Agai s he Da k A s while Ho ace Slugho becomes he Po io s mas e . Ha y fi ds a old ex book wi h a o a io s by he Half-Blood P i ce, due o which he achieves success i Po io s class. Ha y also akes lesso s wi h Dumbledo e, viewi g memo ies abou he ea ly life of Voldemo i a device called a Pe sieve. Ha y lea s f om a d u ke Slugho ha he used o each Tom Riddle, a d ha Voldemo divided his soul i o pieces, c ea i g a se ies of Ho c uxes. Ha y a d Dumbledo e avel o a dis a lake o des oy a Ho c ux; hey succeed, bu Dumbledo e weake s. O hei e u , hey fi d D aco Malfoy a d Dea h Ea e s a acki g he school. The book e ds wi h he killi g of Dumbledo e by P ofesso S ape, he i ula Half-Blood P i ce.

I Ha y Po e a d he Dea hly Hallows, he seve h ovel i he se ies, Lo d Voldemo gai s co ol of he Mi is y of Magic. Ha y, Ro a d He mio e lea abou he Dea hly Hallows, lege da y i ems ha lead o mas e y ove dea h. The g oup i fil a e he mi is y, whe e hey s eal a locke Ho c ux, a d visi God ic’s Hollow, whe e hey a e a acked by Nagi i, Voldemo ‘s s ake. A silve doe Pa o us leads hem o he Swo d of G yffi do , wi h which hey des oy he locke . They s eal a Ho c ux f om G i go s a d avel o Hogwa s, culmi a i g i a ba le wi h Dea h Ea e s. S ape is killed by Voldemo ou of pa a oia, bu le ds Ha y his memo ies befo e he dies. Ha y lea s ha S ape was always loyal o Dumbledo e, a d ha Ha y is himself a Ho c ux. Ha y su e de s o Voldemo a d dies. The defe de s of Hogwa s co i ue o figh o ; Ha y is esu ec ed, faces Voldemo a d kills him.

A epilogue i led Ni e ee Yea s La e desc ibes he lives of he su vivi g cha ac e s a d he impac of Voldemo ‘s dea h. Ha y a d Gi y a e ma ied wi h h ee child e , a d Ro a d He mio e a e ma ied wi h wo child e .

S yle a d allusio s

Ge e a d s yle

The ovels fall i o he ge e of fa asy li e a u e, a d qualify as a ype of fa asy called u ba fa asy, co empo a y fa asy, o low fa asy. They a e mai ly d amas, a d mai ai a fai ly se ious a d da k o e h oughou , hough hey do co ai some o able i s a ces of agicomedy a d black humou . I ma y espec s, hey a e also examples of he bildu gs oma , o comi g of age ovel,8 a d co ai eleme s of mys e y, adve u e, ho o , h ille , a d oma ce. The books a e also, i he wo ds of S ephe Ki g, sh ewd mys e y ales,9 a d each book is co s uc ed i he ma e of a She lock Holmes-s yle mys e y adve u e. The s o ies a e old f om a hi d pe so limi ed poi of view wi h ve y few excep io s (such as he ope i g chap e s of Philosophe ‘s S o e, Goble of Fi e a d Dea hly Hallows a d he fi s wo chap e s of Half-Blood P i ce).

The se ies ca be co side ed pa of he B i ish child e ‘s boa di g school ge e, which i cludes Rudya d Kipli g’s S alky Co., E id Bly o ‘s Malo y Towe s, S . Cla e’s a d he Naugh ies Gi l se ies, a d F a k Richa ds’s Billy Bu e ovels: he Ha y Po e books a e p edomi a ly se i Hogwa s, a fic io al B i ish boa di g school fo wiza ds, whe e he cu iculum i cludes he use of magic.10 I his se se hey a e i a di ec li e of desce f om Thomas Hughes’s Tom B ow ‘s School Days a d o he Vic o ia a d Edwa dia ovels of B i ish public school life, hough hey a e, as ma y o e, mo e co empo a y, g i ie , da ke , a d mo e ma u e ha he ypical boa di g school ovel, add essi g se ious hemes of dea h, love, loss, p ejudice, comi g-of-age, a d he loss of i oce ce i a 1990s B i ish se i g.1112

I Ha y Po e , Rowli g jux aposes he ex ao di a y agai s he o di a y.13 He a a ive fea u es wo wo lds: a co empo a y wo ld i habi ed by o -magical people called Muggles, a d a o he fea u i g wiza ds. I diffe s f om ypical po al fa asy i ha i s magical eleme s s ay g ou ded i he mu da e.14 Pai i gs move a d alk; books bi e eade s; le e s shou messages; a d maps show live jou eys, maki g he wiza di g wo ld bo h exo ic a d familia .1315 This ble d of ealis ic a d oma ic eleme s ex e ds o Rowli g’s cha ac e s. Thei ames a e of e o oma opoeic: Malfoy is difficul , Filch u pleasa a d Lupi a we ewolf.1617 Ha y is o di a y a d ela able, wi h dow – o-ea h fea u es such as wea i g b oke glasses;18 he schola Ro i Na ov e ms him a eve ychild.19 These eleme s se ve o highligh Ha y whe he is he oic, maki g him bo h a eve yma a d a fai y ale he o.1820

Each of he seve books is se ove he cou se of o e school yea . Ha y s uggles wi h he p oblems he e cou e s, a d deali g wi h hem of e i volves he eed o viola e some school ules. If s ude s a e caugh b eaki g ules, hey a e of e discipli ed by Hogwa s p ofesso s. The s o ies each hei climax i he summe e m, ea o jus af e fi al exams, whe eve s escala e fa beyo d i -school squabbles a d s uggles, a d Ha y mus co f o ei he Voldemo o o e of his followe s, he Dea h Ea e s, wi h he s akes a ma e of life a d dea h – a poi u de li ed, as he se ies p og esses, by cha ac e s bei g killed i each of he fi al fou books.2122 I he af e ma h, he lea s impo a lesso s h ough exposi io a d discussio s wi h head eache a d me o Albus Dumbledo e. The o ly excep io o his school-ce ed se i g is he fi al ovel, Ha y Po e a d he Dea hly Hallows, i which Ha y a d his f ie ds spe d mos of hei ime away f om Hogwa s, a d o ly e u he e o face Voldemo a he dé oueme .21

Allusio s

The Ha y Po e s o ies fea u e image y a d mo ifs d aw f om A hu ia my h a d fai y ales. Ha y’s abili y o d aw he Swo d of G yffi do f om he So i g Ha esembles he A hu ia swo d i he s o e lege d.23 His life wi h he Du sleys has bee compa ed o Ci de ella.24 Hogwa s esembles a medieval u ive si y-cum-cas le wi h seve al p ofesso s who belo g o a O de of Me li ; Old P ofesso Bi s s ill lec u es abou he I e a io al Wa lock Co ve io of 1289; a d a eal his o ical pe so , a 14 h-ce u y sc ibe, Si Nicolas Flamel, is desc ibed as a holde of he Philosophe ‘s S o e.25 O he medieval eleme s i Hogwa s i clude coa s-of-a ms a d medieval weapo s o he walls, le e s w i e o pa chme a d sealed wi h wax, he G ea Hall of Hogwa s which is simila o he G ea Hall of Camelo , he use of La i ph ases, he e s pu up fo Quiddi ch ou ame s a e simila o he ma vellous e s pu up fo k igh ly ou ame s, imagi a y a imals like d ago s a d u ico s which exis a ou d Hogwa s, a d he ba e s wi h he aldic a imals fo he fou Houses of Hogwa s.25

Ma y of he mo ifs of he Po e s o ies such as he he o’s ques i voki g objec s ha co fe i visibili y, magical a imals a d ees, a fo es full of da ge a d he ecog i io of a cha ac e based upo sca s a e d aw f om medieval F e ch A hu ia oma ces.25 O he aspec s bo owed f om F e ch A hu ia oma ces i clude he use of owls as messe ge s, we ewolves as cha ac e s, a d whi e dee .25 The Ame ica schola s Hea he A de a d Ka h Lo e z i pa icula a gue ha ma y aspec s of he Po e s o ies a e i spi ed by a 14 h-ce u y F e ch A hu ia oma ce, Cla is e La is, w i i g of he s a li g simila i ies be wee he adve u es of Po e a d he k igh Cla is.25 A de a d Lo e z o ed ha Rowli g g adua ed f om he U ive si y of Exe e i 1986 wi h a deg ee i F e ch li e a u e a d spe a yea livi g i F a ce af e wa ds.25

Like C. S. Lewis’s The Ch o icles of Na ia, Ha y Po e also co ai s Ch is ia symbolism a d allego y. The se ies has bee viewed as a Ch is ia mo al fable i he psychomachia adi io , i which s a d-i s fo good a d evil figh fo sup emacy ove a pe so ‘s soul.26 Child e ‘s li e a u e c i ic Joy Fa me sees pa allels be wee Ha y a d Jesus Ch is .27 Compa i g Rowli g wi h Lewis, she a gues ha magic is bo h au ho s’ way of alki g abou spi i ual eali y.28 Acco di g o Ma ia Nikolajeva, Ch is ia image y is pa icula ly s o g i he fi al sce es of he se ies: Ha y dies i self-sac ifice a d Voldemo delive s a ecce homo speech, af e which Ha y is esu ec ed a d defea s his e emy.29

Rowli g s a ed ha she did o eveal Ha y Po e ‘s eligious pa allels i he begi i g because doi g so would have give oo much away o fa s who migh he see he pa allels.30 I he fi al book of he se ies, Ha y Po e a d he Dea hly Hallows, Rowli g makes he book’s Ch is ia image y mo e explici , quo i g bo h Ma hew 6:21 a d 1 Co i hia s 15:26 (Ki g James Ve sio ) whe Ha y visi s his pa e s’ g aves.30 He mio e G a ge eaches Ha y Po e ha he mea i g of hese ve ses f om he Ch is ia Bible a e livi g beyo d dea h. Livi g af e dea h, which Rowli g s a es epi omize he whole se ies.303132 Rowli g also exhibi s Ch is ia values i developi g Albus Dumbledo e as a God-like cha ac e , he divi e, us ed leade of he se ies, guidi g he lo g-suffe i g he o alo g his ques . I he seve h ovel, Ha y speaks wi h a d ques io s he deceased Dumbledo e much like a pe so of fai h would alk o a d ques io God.33

Themes

Ha y Po e ‘s ove a chi g heme is dea h.3435 I he fi s book, whe Ha y looks i o he Mi o of E ised, he feels bo h joy a d a e ible sad ess a seei g his desi e: his pa e s, alive a d wi h him.36 Co f o i g hei loss is ce al o Ha y’s cha ac e a c a d ma ifes s i diffe e ways h ough he se ies, such as i his s uggles wi h Deme o s.3637 O he cha ac e s i Ha y’s life die; he eve faces his ow dea h i Ha y Po e a d he Dea hly Hallows.38 The se ies has a exis e ial pe spec ive – Ha y mus g ow ma u e e ough o accep dea h.39 I Ha y’s wo ld, dea h is o bi a y bu mu able, a s a e ha exis s i deg ees.40 U like Voldemo , who evades dea h by sepa a i g a d hidi g his soul i seve pa s, Ha y’s soul is whole, ou ished by f ie dship a d love.39

Love dis i guishes Ha y a d Voldemo . Ha y is a he o because he loves o he s, eve willi g o accep dea h o save hem; Voldemo is a villai because he does o .41 Ha y ca ies he p o ec io of his mo he ‘s sac ifice i his blood; Voldemo , who wa s Ha y’s blood a d he p o ec io i ca ies, does o u de s a d ha love va quishes dea h.27

Rowli g has spoke abou hema isi g dea h a d loss i he se ies. Soo af e she s a ed w i i g Philosophe ‘s S o e, he mo he died; she said ha I eally hi k f om ha mome o , dea h became a ce al, if o he ce al heme of he seve books.42 Rowli g has desc ibed Ha y as he p ism h ough which I view dea h, a d fu he s a ed ha all of my cha ac e s a e defi ed by hei a i ude o dea h a d he possibili y of dea h.43

While Ha y Po e ca be viewed as a s o y abou good vs. evil, i s mo al divisio s a e o absolu e.4445 Fi s imp essio s of cha ac e s a e of e misleadi g. Ha y assumes i he fi s book ha Qui ell is o he side of good because he opposes S ape, who appea s o be malicious; i eali y, Qui ell is a age of Voldemo , while S ape is loyal o Dumbledo e. This pa e la e ecu s wi h Moody a d S ape.44 I Rowli g’s wo ld, good a d evil a e choices a he ha i he e a ibu es: seco d cha ces a d he possibili y of edemp io a e key hemes of he se ies.4647 This is eflec ed i Ha y’s self-doub s af e lea i g his co ec io s o Voldemo , such as Pa sel o gue;46 a d p omi e ly i S ape’s cha ac e isa io , which has bee desc ibed as complex a d mul iface ed.48 I some schola s’ view, while Rowli g’s a a ive appea s o he su face o be abou Ha y, he focus may ac ually be o S ape’s mo ali y a d cha ac e a c.4950

Rowli g said ha , o he , he mo al sig ifica ce of he ales seems bli di gly obvious. I he fou h book, Dumbledo e speaks of a choice be wee wha is igh a d wha is easy; Rowli g views his as a key heme, because ha … is how y a y is s a ed, wi h people bei g apa he ic a d aki g he easy ou e a d sudde ly fi di g hemselves i deep ouble.51

Academics a d jou alis s have developed ma y o he i e p e a io s of hemes i he books, some mo e complex ha o he s, a d some i cludi g poli ical sub ex s. Themes such as o mali y, opp essio , su vival, a d ove comi g imposi g odds have all bee co side ed as p evale h oughou he se ies.52 Simila ly, he heme of maki g o e’s way h ough adolesce ce a d goi g ove o e’s mos ha owi g o deals – a d hus comi g o e ms wi h hem has also bee co side ed.53 Rowli g has s a ed ha he books comp ise a p olo ged a gume fo ole a ce, a p olo ged plea fo a e d o bigo y a d ha hey also pass o a message o ques io au ho i y a d… o assume ha he es ablishme o he p ess ells you all of he u h.54

Developme his o y

I 1990, Rowli g was o a c owded ai f om Ma ches e o Lo do whe he idea fo Ha y sudde ly fell i o he head. Rowli g gives a accou of he expe ie ce o he websi e sayi g:55

I had bee w i i g almos co i uously si ce he age of six bu I had eve bee so exci ed abou a idea befo e. I simply sa a d hough , fo fou (delayed ai ) hou s, a d all he de ails bubbled up i my b ai , a d his sc aw y, black-hai ed, bespec acled boy who did o k ow he was a wiza d became mo e a d mo e eal o me.

Rowli g comple ed Ha y Po e a d he Philosophe ‘s S o e i 1995 a d he ma usc ip was se off o seve al p ospec ive age s.56 The seco d age she ied, Ch is ophe Li le, offe ed o ep ese he a d se he ma usc ip o seve al publishe s.57

Publishi g his o y

Af e welve o he publishe s had ejec ed Philosophe ‘s S o e, Bloomsbu y ag eed o publish he book.59 Despi e Rowli g’s s a eme ha she did o have a y pa icula age g oup i mi d whe begi i g o w i e he Ha y Po e books, he publishe s i i ially a ge ed child e aged i e o eleve .60 O he eve of publishi g, Rowli g was asked by he publishe s o adop a mo e ge de – eu al pe ame i o de o appeal o he male membe s of his age g oup, fea i g ha hey would o be i e es ed i eadi g a ovel hey k ew o be w i e by a woma . She elec ed o use J. K. Rowli g (Joa e Ka hlee Rowli g), usi g he g a dmo he ‘s ame as he seco d ame because she has o middle ame.6162

Ha y Po e a d he Philosophe ‘s S o e was published by Bloomsbu y, he publishe of all Ha y Po e books i he U i ed Ki gdom, o 26 Ju e 1997.63 I was eleased i he U i ed S a es o 1 Sep embe 1998 by Scholas ic – he Ame ica publishe of he books – as Ha y Po e a d he So ce e ‘s S o e,64 af e he Ame ica igh s sold fo US$105,000 – a eco d amou fo a child e ‘s book by a u k ow au ho .65 Scholas ic fea ed ha Ame ica eade s would o associa e he wo d philosophe wi h magic, a d Rowli g sugges ed he i le Ha y Po e a d he So ce e ‘s S o e fo he Ame ica ma ke .66 Rowli g has la e said ha she eg e s he cha ge.67

The seco d book, Ha y Po e a d he Chambe of Sec e s, was o igi ally published i he UK o 2 July 1998 a d i he US o 2 Ju e 1999. Ha y Po e a d he P iso e of Azkaba was published a yea la e i he UK o 8 July 1999 a d i he US o 8 Sep embe 1999.68 Ha y Po e a d he Goble of Fi e was published o 8 July 2000 a he same ime by Bloomsbu y a d Scholas ic.69 Ha y Po e a d he O de of he Phoe ix is he lo ges book i he se ies, a 766 pages i he UK ve sio a d 870 pages i he US ve sio .70 I was published wo ldwide i E glish o 21 Ju e 2003.71 Ha y Po e a d he Half-Blood P i ce was published o 16 July 2005.7273 The seve h a d fi al ovel, Ha y Po e a d he Dea hly Hallows, was published o 21 July 2007.74 Rowli g he self has s a ed ha he las chap e of he fi al book (i fac , he epilogue) was comple ed i some hi g like 1990.75

Rowli g e ai ed igh s o digi al edi io s a d eleased hem o he Po e mo e websi e i 2012. Ve do s such as Amazo displayed he ebooks i he fo m of li ks o Po e mo e, which co olled p ici g.76 All seve Ha y Po e ovels have bee eleased i u ab idged audiobook ve sio s, wi h S ephe F y eadi g he B i ish edi io s a d Jim Dale voici g he se ies fo he Ame ica edi io s.7778 O Audible, he se ies has bee lis e ed, as of Novembe 2022, fo ove a billio hou s.79

T a sla io s

The se ies has bee a sla ed i o mo e ha 80 la guages,6 placi g Rowli g amo g he mos a sla ed au ho s i his o y. The books have see a sla io s o dive se la guages such as Ko ea , A me ia , Uk ai ia , A abic, U du, Hi di, Be gali, Bulga ia , Welsh, Af ikaa s, Alba ia , La via , Vie amese a d Hawaiia . The fi s volume has bee a sla ed i o La i a d eve A cie G eek,80 maki g i he lo ges published wo k i A cie G eek si ce he ovels of Heliodo us of Emesa i he 3 d ce u y AD.81 The seco d volume has also bee a sla ed i o La i .82

Some of he a sla o s hi ed o wo k o he books we e well-k ow au ho s befo e hei wo k o Ha y Po e , such as Vik o Golyshev, who ove saw he Russia a sla io of he se ies’ fif h book. The Tu kish a sla io of books wo o seve was u de ake by Sevi Okyay, a popula li e a y c i ic a d cul u al comme a o .83 Fo easo s of sec ecy, a sla io o a give book could o ly s a af e i had bee eleased i E glish, leadi g o a lag of seve al mo hs befo e he a sla io s we e available. This led o mo e a d mo e copies of he E glish edi io s bei g sold o impa ie fa s i o -E glish speaki g cou ies; fo example, such was he clamou o ead Ha y Po e a d he O de of he Phoe ix ha i s E glish la guage edi io became he fi s E glish-la guage book eve o op he bes -selle lis i F a ce.84

The U i ed S a es edi io s we e adap ed i o Ame ica E glish o make hem mo e u de s a dable o a you g Ame ica audie ce.85

Cove a

Fo cove a , Bloomsbu y chose pai ed a i a classic s yle of desig , wi h he fi s cove a wa e colou a d pe cil d awi g by illus a o Thomas Taylo showi g Ha y boa di g he Hogwa s Exp ess, a d a i le i he fo Cochi Bold.86 The fi s eleases of he successive books i he se ies followed i he same s yle bu somewha mo e ealis ic, illus a i g sce es f om he books. These cove s we e c ea ed by fi s Cliff W igh a d he Jaso Cock of .87

Due o he appeal of he books amo g a adul audie ce, Bloomsbu y commissio ed a seco d li e of edi io s i a ‘adul ‘ s yle. These i i ially used black-a d-whi e pho og aphic a fo he cove s showi g objec s f om he books (i cludi g a ve y Ame ica Hogwa s Exp ess) wi hou depic i g people, bu la e shif ed o pa ial colou isa io wi h a pic u e of Sly he i ‘s locke o he cove of he fi al book.ci a io eeded

I e a io al a d la e edi io s have bee c ea ed by a a ge of desig e s, i cludi g Ma y G a dP é fo US audie ces a d Mika Lau is i Fi la d.8889 Fo a la e Ame ica elease, Kazu Kibuishi c ea ed cove s i a somewha a ime-i flue ced s yle.9091

Recep io

Comme cial success

The popula i y of he Ha y Po e se ies has a sla ed i o subs a ial fi a cial success fo Rowli g, he publishe s, a d o he Ha y Po e ela ed lice se holde s. This success has made Rowli g he fi s a d hus fa o ly billio ai e au ho .92 The books have sold mo e ha 600 millio copies wo ldwide a d have also give ise o he popula film adap a io s p oduced by Wa e B os. Pic u es, all of which have bee highly successful i hei ow igh .936 The o al eve ue f om he book sales is es ima ed, as of Novembe 2018, o be a ou d $7.7 billio .94 The fi s ovel i he se ies, Ha y Po e a d he Philosophe ‘s S o e, has sold i excess of 120 millio copies, maki g i o e of he bes selli g books i his o y.9596 The films have i u spaw ed eigh video games a d have led o he lice si g of mo e ha 400 addi io al Ha y Po e p oduc s. The Ha y Po e b a d has bee es ima ed o be wo h as much as $25 billio .7

The g ea dema d fo Ha y Po e ovels mo iva ed The New Yo k Times o c ea e a sepa a e bes -selle lis fo child e ‘s li e a u e i 2000, jus befo e he elease of Ha y Po e a d he Goble of Fi e. By 24 Ju e 2000, Rowli g’s ovels had bee o he lis fo 79 s aigh weeks; he fi s h ee ovels we e each o he ha dcove bes -selle lis .97 O 12 Ap il 2007, Ba es Noble decla ed ha Dea hly Hallows had b oke i s p e-o de eco d, wi h mo e ha 500,000 copies p e-o de ed h ough i s si e.98 Fo he elease of Goble of Fi e, 9,000 FedEx ucks we e used wi h o o he pu pose ha o delive he book.99 Toge he , Amazo .com a d Ba es Noble p e-sold mo e ha 700,000 copies of he book.99 I he U i ed S a es, he book’s i i ial p i i g u was 3.8 millio copies.99 This eco d s a is ic was b oke by Ha y Po e a d he O de of he Phoe ix, wi h 8.5 millio , which was he sha e ed by Half-Blood P i ce wi h 10.8 millio copies.100 Wi hi he fi s 24 hou s of i s elease, 6.9 millio copies of P i ce we e sold i he US; i he UK mo e ha wo millio copies we e sold o he fi s day.101 The i i ial US p i u fo Dea hly Hallows was 12 millio copies, a d mo e ha a millio we e p e-o de ed h ough Amazo a d Ba es Noble.102

Fa s of he se ies we e so eage fo he la es i s alme ha books o es a ou d he wo ld bega holdi g eve s o coi cide wi h he mid igh elease of he books, begi i g wi h he 2000 publica io of Ha y Po e a d he Goble of Fi e. The eve s, commo ly fea u i g mock so i g, games, face pai i g, a d o he live e e ai me have achieved popula i y wi h Po e fa s a d have bee highly successful i a ac i g fa s a d selli g books wi h ea ly i e millio of he 10.8 millio i i ial p i copies of Ha y Po e a d he Half-Blood P i ce sold i he fi s 24 hou s.103104 The fi al book i he se ies, Ha y Po e a d he Dea hly Hallows became he fas es selli g book i his o y, movi g 11 millio u i s i he fi s we y-fou hou s of elease.105 The book sold 2.7 millio copies i he UK a d 8.3 millio i he US.73 The se ies has also ga he ed adul fa s, leadi g o he elease of wo edi io s of each Ha y Po e book, ide ical i ex bu wi h o e edi io ‘s cove a wo k aimed a child e a d he o he aimed a adul s.106

Li e a y c i icism

Ea ly i i s his o y, Ha y Po e eceived posi ive eviews. O publica io , he fi s book, Ha y Po e a d he Philosophe ‘s S o e, a ac ed a e io f om he Sco ish ewspape s, such as The Sco sma , which said i had all he maki gs of a classic,108 a d The Glasgow He ald, which called i Magic s uff.108 Soo he E glish ewspape s joi ed i , wi h The Su day Times compa i g i o Roald Dahl’s wo k (compa iso s o Dahl a e, his ime, jus ified),108 while The Gua dia called i a ichly ex u ed ovel give lif -off by a i ve ive wi .108

By he ime of he elease of he fif h book, Ha y Po e a d he O de of he Phoe ix, he books bega o eceive s o g c i icism f om a umbe of li e a y schola s. Yale p ofesso , li e a y schola , a d c i ic Ha old Bloom aised c i icisms of he books’ li e a y me i s, sayi g, Rowli g’s mi d is so gove ed by clichés a d dead me apho s ha she has o o he s yle of w i i g.109 A. S. Bya au ho ed a op-ed a icle i The New Yo k Times calli g Rowli g’s u ive se a seco da y seco da y wo ld, made up of i ellige ly pa chwo ked de iva ive mo ifs f om all so s of child e ‘s li e a u e … w i e fo people whose imagi a ive lives a e co fi ed o TV ca oo s, a d he exagge a ed (mo e exci i g, o h ea e i g) mi o -wo lds of soaps, eali y TV a d celeb i y gossip.110

Michael Rose , a ovelis a d poe , advoca ed he books we e o sui ed fo child e , as hey would be u able o g asp he complex hemes. Rose also s a ed ha J. K. Rowli g is mo e of a adul w i e .111 The c i ic A ho y Holde w o e i The Obse ve o his expe ie ce of judgi g Ha y Po e a d he P iso e of Azkaba fo he 1999 Whi b ead Awa ds. His ove all view of he se ies was ega ive – he Po e saga was esse ially pa o isi g, co se va ive, highly de iva ive, dispi i i gly os algic fo a bygo e B i ai , a d he speaks of a pedes ia , u g amma ical p ose s yle.112 U sula K. Le Gui said, I have o g ea opi io of i … i seemed a lively kid’s fa asy c ossed wi h a ‘school ovel,’ good fa e fo i s age g oup, bu s ylis ically o di a y, imagi a ively de iva ive, a d e hically a he mea -spi i ed.113 By co as , au ho Fay Weldo , while admi i g ha he se ies is o wha he poe s hoped fo , eve heless goes o o say, bu his is o poe y, i is eadable, saleable, eve yday, useful p ose.114

The li e a y c i ic A. N. Wilso p aised he Ha y Po e se ies i The Times, s a i g, The e a e o ma y w i e s who have JK’s Dicke sia abili y o make us u he pages, o weep – ope ly, wi h ea s splashi g – a d a few pages la e o laugh, a i va iably good jokes … We have lived h ough a decade i which we have followed he publica io of he livelies , fu ies , sca ies a d mos movi g child e ‘s s o ies eve w i e .115 Cha les Taylo of Salo .com, who is p ima ily a movie c i ic,116 ook issue wi h Bya ‘s c i icisms i pa icula . While he co ceded ha she may have a valid cul u al poi – a ee y o e – abou he impulses ha d ive us o eassu i g pop ash a d away f om he oubli g complexi ies of a ,117 he ejec ed he claims ha he se ies is lacki g i se ious li e a y me i a d ha i owes i s success me ely o he childhood eassu a ces i offe s.117 S ephe Ki g called he se ies a fea of which o ly a supe io imagi a io is capable, a d decla ed Rowli g’s pu i g, o e-eyeb ow-cocked se se of humo o be ema kable. Howeve , he w o e ha he is a li le i ed of discove i g Ha y a home wi h his ho ible au a d u cle, he fo mulaic begi i g of all seve books.9118

Samee Rahim of The Daily Teleg aph disag eed, sayi g I dep esses me o see 16- a d 17-yea -olds eadi g he se ies whe hey could be eadi g he g ea ovels of childhood such as Olive Twis o A House fo M Biswas.119 The Washi g o Pos book c i ic Ro Cha les opi ed i July 2007 ha h ough o faul of Rowli g’s, he cul u al a d ma ke i g hys e ia ma ked by he publica io of he la e books ai s child e a d adul s o expec he oa of he coliseum, a mass-media expe ie ce ha o o he ovel ca possibly p ovide.120 Je y Sawye w o e i The Ch is ia Scie ce Mo i o o 25 July 2007 ha Ha y Po e ei he faces a mo al s uggle o u de goes a y e hical g ow h, a d is hus o guide i ci cums a ces i which igh a d w o g a e a y hi g less ha black a d whi e.121 I co as Emily G iesi ge desc ibed Ha y’s fi s passage h ough o Pla fo m ’`UNIQ– empla es yles-000000AA-QINU`’9 3⁄4 as a applica io of fai h a d hope, a d his e cou e wi h he So i g Ha as he fi s of ma y i which Ha y is shaped by he choices he makes.122

I a 8 Novembe 2002 Sla e a icle, Ch is Suelle op like ed Po e o a us -fu d kid whose success a school is la gely a ibu able o he gif s his f ie ds a d ela ives lavish upo him.123 I a 12 Augus 2007, eview of Dea hly Hallows i The New Yo k Times, howeve , Ch is ophe Hi che s p aised Rowli g fo u moo i g he E glish school s o y f om li e a y p ecede s bou d up wi h d eams of weal h a d class a d s obbe y, a gui g ha she had i s ead c ea ed a wo ld of you hful democ acy a d dive si y.124 I 2016, a a icle w i e by Dia a C. Mu z compa es he poli ics of Ha y Po e o he 2016 Do ald T ump p eside ial campaig . She sugges s ha hese hemes a e also p ese i he p eside ial elec io a d i may play a sig ifica ole i how Ame ica s have espo ded o he campaig .125

The e is o goi g discussio ega di g he ex e o which he se ies was i spi ed by Tolkie ‘s Lo d of he Ri gs books.126

Thema ic c i ique

The po ayal of wome i Ha y Po e has bee desc ibed as complex a d va ied, bu o e heless co fo mi g o s e eo ypical a d pa ia chal depic io s of ge de .127 Ge de divides a e os e sibly abse i he books: Hogwa s is coeduca io al a d wome hold posi io s of powe i wiza di g socie y. Howeve , his se i g obscu es he ypecas i g of female cha ac e s a d he ge e al depic io of co ve io al ge de oles.128 Acco di g o schola s Elizabe h Heilma a d T evo Do aldso , he subo di a io of female cha ac e s goes fu he ea ly i he se ies. The fi al h ee books showcase iche oles a d mo e powe ful females: fo i s a ce, he se ies’ mos ma ia chal cha ac e , Molly Weasley, e gages subs a ially i he fi al ba le of Dea hly Hallows, while o he wome a e show as leade s.129 He mio e G a ge , i pa icula , becomes a ac ive a d i depe de cha ac e esse ial o he p o ago is s’ ba le agai s evil.130 Ye , eve pa icula ly capable female cha ac e s such as He mio e a d Mi e va McGo agall a e placed i suppo i g oles,131 a d He mio e’s s a us as a femi is model is deba ed.132 Gi ls a d wome a e mo e f eque ly show as emo io al, mo e of e defi ed by hei appea a ce, a d less of e give age cy i family se i gs.128133

The social hie a chy of wiza ds i Rowli g’s wo ld has d aw deba e amo g c i ics. Pu ebloods have wo wiza d pa e s; half-bloods have o e; a d Muggle-bo wiza ds have magical abili ies al hough ei he of hei pa e s is a wiza d.134 Lo d Voldemo a d his followe s believe ha blood pu i y is pa amou a d ha Muggles a e subhuma .135 Acco di g o he li e a y schola A d ew Blake, Ha y Po e ejec s blood pu i y as a basis fo social divisio ;136 Suma Gup a ag ees ha Voldemo ‘s philosophy ep ese s absolu e evil;137 a d Nel a d Ecclesha e ag ee ha advoca es of acial o blood-based hie a chies a e a ago is s.138139 Gup a, followi g Blake,140 sugges s ha he esse ial supe io i y of wiza ds ove Muggles – wiza ds ca use magic a d Muggles ca o – mea s ha he books ca o cohe e ly ejec a i-Muggle p ejudice by appeali g o equali y be wee wiza ds a d Muggles. Ra he , acco di g o Gup a, Ha y Po e models a fo m of ole a ce based o he cha i y a d al uism of hose belo gi g o supe io aces owa ds lesse aces.141

Ha y Po e ‘s depic io of ace, specifically he slave y of house-elves, has eceived va ied espo ses. Schola s such as B yccha Ca ey have p aised he books’ aboli io is se ime s, viewi g He mio e’s Socie y fo he P omo io of Elfish Welfa e as a model fo you ge eade s’ poli ical e gageme .142143 O he c i ics i cludi g Fa ah Me dlesoh fi d he po ayal of house-elves mos difficul o accep : he elves a e de ied he igh o f ee hemselves a d ely o he be evole ce of o he s like He mio e.144145 Pha e ms he house-elves a disha mo ious eleme i he se ies, w i i g ha Rowli g leaves hei fa e ha gi g;146 a he e d of Dea hly Hallows, he elves emai e slaved a d chee ful.147 The gobli s of he wo ld of Ha y Po e have also eceived c i icism fo followi g a isemi ic ca ica u es – pa icula ly fo hei g o esque hook- osed po ayal i he films, a appea a ce associa ed wi h Jewish s e eo ypes.148149150

Co ove sies

The books have bee he subjec of a umbe of legal p oceedi gs, s emmi g f om va ious co flic s ove copy igh a d adema k i f i geme s. The popula i y a d high ma ke value of he se ies has led Rowli g, he publishe s, a d film dis ibu o Wa e B os. o ake legal measu es o p o ec hei copy igh , which have i cluded ba i g he sale of Ha y Po e imi a io s, a ge i g he ow e s of websi es ove he Ha y Po e domai ame, a d sui g au ho Na cy S ouffe o cou e he accusa io s ha Rowli g had plagia ised he wo k.151152153

Va ious eligious fu dame alis s have claimed ha he books p omo e wi chc af a d eligio s such as Wicca a d a e he efo e u sui able fo child e ,154155156 while a umbe of c i ics have c i icised he books fo p omo i g va ious poli ical age das.157158 The se ies has la ded he Ame ica Lib a y Associa io s’ Top 10 Ba ed Book Lis i 2001, 2002, 2003, a d 2019 wi h claims i was a i-family, discussed magic a d wi chc af , co ai ed ac ual spells a d cu ses, efe e ced he occul Sa a ism, viole ce, a d had cha ac e s who used efa ious mea s o a ai goals, as well as co flic s wi h eligious viewpoi s.159

The books also a oused co ove sies i he li e a y a d publishi g wo lds. F om 1997 o 1998, Ha y Po e a d he Philosophe ‘s S o e wo almos all he U i ed Ki gdom awa ds judged by child e , bu o e of he child e ‘s book awa ds judged by adul s,160 a d Sa d a Becke sugges ed he easo was i ellec ual s obbe y owa ds books ha we e popula amo g child e .161 I 1999, he wi e of he Whi b ead Book of he Yea awa d child e ‘s divisio was e e ed fo he fi s ime o he sho lis fo he mai awa d, a d o e judge h ea e ed o esig if Ha y Po e a d he P iso e of Azkaba was decla ed he ove all wi e ; i fi ished seco d, ve y close behi d he wi e of he poe y p ize, Seamus Hea ey’s a sla io of he A glo-Saxo epic Beowulf.161

I 2000, sho ly befo e he publica io of Ha y Po e a d he Goble of Fi e, he p evious h ee Ha y Po e books opped The New Yo k Times fic io bes -selle lis a d a hi d of he e ies we e child e ‘s books. The ewspape c ea ed a ew child e ‘s sec io cove i g child e ‘s books, i cludi g bo h fic io a d o -fic io , a d i i ially cou i g o ly ha dback sales. The move was suppo ed by publishe s a d bookselle s.97 I 2004, The New Yo k Times fu he spli he child e ‘s lis , which was s ill domi a ed by Ha y Po e books, i o sec io s fo se ies a d i dividual books, a d emoved he Ha y Po e books f om he sec io fo i dividual books.162 The spli i 2000 a ac ed co dem a io , p aise a d some comme s ha p ese ed bo h be efi s a d disadva ages of he move.163 Time sugges ed ha , o he same p i ciple, Billboa d should have c ea ed a sepa a e mop- ops lis i 1964 whe he Bea les held he op five places i i s lis , a d Nielse should have c ea ed a sepa a e game-show lis whe Who Wa s o Be a Millio ai e? domi a ed he a i gs.164

Legacy

I flue ce o li e a u e

Ha y Po e a sfo med child e ‘s li e a u e.165166 I he 1970s, child e ‘s books we e ge e ally ealis ic as opposed o fa as ic,167 while adul fa asy became popula because of he i flue ce of The Lo d of he Ri gs.168 The ex decade saw a i c easi g i e es i g im, ealis hemes, wi h a ou flow of fa asy eade s a d w i e s o adul wo ks.169170

The comme cial success of Ha y Po e eve sed his e d.171 The scale of i s g ow h had o p ecede i he child e ‘s ma ke : wi hi fou yea s of he se ies’ i cep io , i occupied 28% of ha field by eve ue.172 Child e ‘s li e a u e ose i cul u al s a us,173 a d fa asy became a domi a ge e.174 Olde wo ks i he ge e, i cludi g Dia a Wy e Jo es’s Ch es oma ci se ies a d Dia e Dua e’s You g Wiza ds, we e ep i ed a d ose i popula i y; some au ho s e-es ablished hei ca ee s.175 I he followi g decades, ma y Ha y Po e imi a o s a d subve sive espo ses g ew popula .176177

Rowli g has bee compa ed o E id Bly o , who also w o e i simple la guage abou g oups of child e a d lo g held sway ove he B i ish child e ‘s ma ke .178179 She has also bee desc ibed as a hei o Roald Dahl.180 Some c i ics view Ha y Po e ‘s ise, alo g wi h he co cu e success of Philip Pullma ‘s His Da k Ma e ials, as pa of a b oade shif i eadi g as es: a ejec io of li e a y fic io i favou of plo a d adve u e.181 This is eflec ed i he BBC’s 2003 Big Read su vey of he UK’s favou i e books, whe e Pullma a d Rowli g a ked a umbe s 3 a d 5, espec ively, wi h ve y few B i ish li e a y classics i he op 10.182

Cul u al impac

Ha y Po e has bee desc ibed as a cul u al phe ome o .183184 The wo d Muggle has sp ead beyo d i s o igi s i he books, e e i g he Oxfo d E glish Dic io a y i 2003.185 A eal-life ve sio of he spo Quiddi ch was c ea ed i 2005 a d fea u ed as a exhibi io ou ame i he 2012 Lo do Olympics.186 Cha ac e s a d eleme s f om he se ies have i spi ed scie ific ames of seve al o ga isms, i cludi g he di osau D aco ex hogwa sia, he spide E iovixia g yffi do i, he wasp Ampulex deme o , a d he c ab Ha yplax seve us.187

Lib a ia Na cy K app poi ed ou he books’ po e ial o imp ove li e acy by mo iva i g child e o ead much mo e ha hey o he wise would.188 The seve -book se ies has a wo d cou of 1,083,594 (US edi io ). Ag eei g abou he mo iva i g effec s, Dia e Pe od also p aised he books’ ble di g of simple e e ai me wi h he quali ies of highb ow li e a y fic io , bu exp essed co ce abou he dis ac i g effec of he p olific me cha disi g ha accompa ies he book lau ches.189 Howeve , he assump io ha Ha y Po e books have i c eased li e acy amo g you g people is la gely a folk lege d.190

Resea ch by he Na io al E dowme fo he A s (NEA) has fou d o i c ease i eadi g amo g child e coi cidi g wi h he Ha y Po e publishi g phe ome o , o has he b oade dow wa d e d i eadi g amo g Ame ica s bee a es ed du i g he ise i he popula i y of he Ha y Po e books.190191 The esea ch also fou d ha child e who ead Ha y Po e books we e o mo e likely o go o o ead ou side he fa asy a d mys e y ge es.190 NEA chai ma Da a Gioia said he se ies, go millio s of kids o ead a lo g a d easo ably complex se ies of books. The ouble is ha o e Ha y Po e ovel eve y few yea s is o e ough o eve se he decli e i eadi g.192

Ma y fa fic io a d fa a wo ks abou Ha y Po e have bee made. I Ma ch 2007, Ha y Po e was he mos commo ly sea ched fa fic io subjec o he i e e .193 Je ife Co used S ape’s a d Quiddi ch coach Madam Hooch’s eachi g me hods as examples of wha o avoid a d wha o emula e i cli ical eachi g,194 a d Joyce Fields w o e ha he books illus a e fou of he five mai opics i a ypical fi s -yea sociology class: sociological co cep s i cludi g cul u e, socie y, a d socialisa io ; s a ifica io a d social i equali y; social i s i u io s; a d social heo y.195

F om he ea ly 2000s o wa ds seve al ews epo s appea ed i he UK of he Ha y Po e book a d movie se ies d ivi g dema d fo pe owls196 a d eve epo s ha af e he e d of he movie se ies hese same pe owls we e ow bei g aba do ed by hei ow e s.197 This led J. K. Rowli g o issue seve al s a eme s u gi g Ha y Po e fa s o ef ai f om pu chasi g pe owls.198 Despi e he media flu y, esea ch i o he popula i y of Ha y Po e a d sales of owls i he UK failed o fi d a y evide ce ha he Ha y Po e f a chise had i flue ced he buyi g of owls i he cou y o he umbe of owls eachi g a imal shel e s a d sa c ua ies.199

Awa ds, ho ou s, a d ecog i io

The Ha y Po e se ies has bee ecog ised by a hos of awa ds si ce he i i ial publica io of Philosophe ‘s S o e i cludi g a pla i um awa d f om he Whi ake Gold a d Pla i um Book Awa ds ( 2001),200201 h ee Nes lé Sma ies Book P izes (1997–1999),202 wo Sco ish A s Cou cil Book Awa ds (1999 a d 2001),203 he i augu al Whi b ead child e ‘s book of he yea awa d (1999),204 he WHSmi h book of he yea (2006),205 amo g o he s. I 2000, Ha y Po e a d he P iso e of Azkaba was omi a ed fo a Hugo Awa d fo Bes Novel, a d i 2001, Ha y Po e a d he Goble of Fi e wo said awa d.206 Ho ou s i clude a comme da io fo he Ca egie Medal (1997),207 a sho lis i g fo he Gua dia Child e ‘s Awa d (1998), a d ume ous lis i gs o he o able books, edi o s’ Choices, a d bes books lis s of he Ame ica Lib a y Associa io , The New Yo k Times, Chicago Public Lib a y, a d Publishe s Weekly.208

I 2002, sociologis A d ew Blake amed Ha y Po e a B i ish pop cul u e ico alo g wi h he likes of James Bo d a d She lock Holmes.209 I 2003, fou of he books we e amed i he op 24 of he BBC’s The Big Read su vey of he bes loved ovels i he UK.210 A 2004 s udy fou d ha books i he se ies we e commo ly ead aloud i eleme a y schools i Sa Diego Cou y, Califo ia.211 Based o a 2007 o li e poll, he US Na io al Educa io Associa io lis ed he se ies i i s Teache s’ Top 100 Books fo Child e .212 Time magazi e amed Rowli g as a u e -up fo i s 2007 Pe so of he Yea awa d, o i g he social, mo al, a d poli ical i spi a io she has give he fa dom.213 Th ee of he books placed amo g he Top 100 Chap e Books of all ime, o child e ‘s ovels, i a 2012 su vey published by School Lib a y Jou al: So ce e ‘s S o e a ked umbe h ee, P iso e of Azkaba 12 h, a d Goble of Fi e 98 h.214

I 2007, he seve Ha y Po e book cove s we e depic ed o a se ies of UK pos age s amps issued by Royal Mail.215 I 2012, he ope i g ce emo y of he 2012 Summe Olympics i Lo do fea u ed a 100-foo all e di io of Lo d Voldemo i a segme desig ed o showcase he UK’s cul u al ico s.216 I Novembe 2019, he BBC lis ed he Ha y Po e se ies o i s lis of he 100 mos i flue ial ovels.217

Adap a io s

Films

I 1999, Rowli g sold he film igh s fo Ha y Po e o Wa e B os. fo a epo ed £1 millio (US$2,000,000).218219 Rowli g had c ea ive co ol o he film se ies, obse vi g he filmmaki g p ocess of Philosophe ‘s S o e a d se vi g as p oduce o he wo-pa Dea hly Hallows, alo gside David Heyma a d David Ba o .220 Rowli g dema ded he p i cipal cas be kep s ic ly B i ish a d I ish, o e heless allowi g fo he i clusio o F e ch a d Eas e Eu opea ac o s whe e cha ac e s f om he book a e specified as such.221

Ch is Columbus was selec ed as he di ec o fo Ha y Po e a d he Philosophe ‘s S o e ( i led Ha y Po e a d he So ce e ‘s S o e i he U i ed S a es).222 Philosophe ‘s S o e was eleased o 14 Novembe 2001. Jus h ee days af e he film’s elease, p oduc io fo Ha y Po e a d he Chambe of Sec e s, also di ec ed by Columbus, bega a d he film was eleased o 15 Novembe 2002.223 Columbus decli ed o di ec Ha y Po e a d he P iso e of Azkaba , o ly ac i g as p oduce . Mexica di ec o Alfo so Cua ó ook ove he job, a d af e shoo i g i 2003, he film was eleased o 4 Ju e 2004. Due o he fou h film begi i g i s p oduc io befo e he hi d’s elease, Mike Newell was chose as he di ec o fo Ha y Po e a d he Goble of Fi e, eleased o 18 Novembe 2005.224 Newell became he fi s B i ish di ec o of he se ies, wi h elevisio di ec o David Ya es followi g sui af e he was chose o helm Ha y Po e a d he O de of he Phoe ix. P oduc io bega i Ja ua y 2006 a d he film was eleased he followi g yea i July 2007.225 Ya es was selec ed o di ec Ha y Po e a d he Half-Blood P i ce, which was eleased o 15 July 2009.226227 The fi al i s alme i he se ies, Ha y Po e a d he Dea hly Hallows was eleased i wo ci ema ic pa s: Pa 1 o 19 Novembe 2010 a d Pa 2 o 15 July 2011.228229

Spi -off p equels

A p equel se ies is pla ed o co sis of five films, aki g place befo e he mai se ies.230 The fi s film Fa as ic Beas s a d Whe e o Fi d Them was eleased i Novembe 2016, followed by he seco d Fa as ic Beas s: The C imes of G i delwald i Novembe 2018 a d Fa as ic Beas s: The Sec e s of Dumbledo e i Ap il 2022. Rowli g w o e he sc ee play fo all h ee films,231 ma ki g he fo ay i o sc ee w i i g.

Games

A umbe of o -i e ac ive media games a d boa d games have bee eleased such as Cluedo Ha y Po e Edi io , Sce e I ? Ha y Po e a d Lego Ha y Po e models, which a e i flue ced by he hemes of bo h he ovels a d films.

The e a e hi ee Ha y Po e video games, eigh co espo di g wi h he films a d books a d five spi -offs. The filmbook-based games a e p oduced by Elec o ic A s (EA), as was Ha y Po e : Quiddi ch Wo ld Cup, wi h he game ve sio of he fi s e y i he se ies, Philosophe ‘s S o e, bei g eleased i Novembe 2001. Ha y Po e a d he Philosophe ‘s S o e we o o become o e of he bes -selli g PlayS a io games eve .232 The video games we e eleased o coi cide wi h he films. Objec ives usually occu i a d a ou d Hogwa s. The s o y a d desig of he games follow he selec ed film’s cha ac e isa io a d plo ; EA wo ked closely wi h Wa e B os. o i clude sce es f om he films. The las game i he se ies, Dea hly Hallows, was spli , wi h Pa 1 eleased i Novembe 2010 a d Pa 2 debu i g o co soles i July 2011.233234

The spi -off games Lego Ha y Po e : Yea s 1–4 a d Lego Ha y Po e : Yea s 5–7 we e developed by T avelle ‘s Tales a d published by Wa e B os. I e ac ive E e ai me . The spi -off games Book of Spells a d Book of Po io s we e developed by Lo do S udio a d use he Wo de book, a augme ed eali y book desig ed o be used i co ju c io wi h he PlayS a io Move a d PlayS a io Eye.235 The Ha y Po e u ive se is also fea u ed i Lego Dime sio s, wi h he se i gs a d side cha ac e s fea u ed i he Ha y Po e Adve u e Wo ld, a d Ha y, Voldemo , a d He mio e as playable cha ac e s. I 2017, Wa e B os. I e ac ive E e ai me ope ed i s ow Ha y Po e – hemed game desig s udio, by he ame of Po key Games, befo e eleasi g Hogwa s Mys e y i 2018, developed by Jam Ci y.236

S age p oduc io

Ha y Po e a d he Cu sed Child: Pa s I a d II is a play which se ves as a sequel o he books, begi i g i e ee yea s af e he eve s of Ha y Po e a d he Dea hly Hallows. I was w i e by Jack Tho e based o a o igi al ew s o y by Tho e, Rowli g a d Joh Tiffa y.237 I has u a he Palace Thea e i Lo do ‘s Wes E d si ce p eviews bega o 7 Ju e 2016 wi h a official p emie e o 30 Ju e 2016.238 The fi s fou mo hs of icke s fo he Ju e–Sep embe pe fo ma ces we e sold ou wi hi seve al hou s upo elease.239 Fo hcomi g p oduc io s a e pla ed fo B oadway240 a d Melbou e.241

The sc ip was eleased as a book a he ime of he p emie e, wi h a evised ve sio followi g he ex yea .

Televisio

O 25 Ja ua y 2021, i was epo ed ha a live-ac io elevisio se ies has bee i ea ly developme a HBO Max. Though i was o ed ha he se ies has complica ed igh s issues, due o a seve -yea igh s deal wi h Wa e B os. Domes ic TV Dis ibu io ha i cluded US b oadcas , cable a d s eami g igh s o he f a chise, which e ds i Ap il 2025.242

O 12 Ap il 2023, he se ies was co fi med o be i p oduc io , a d will be s eamed o he ew s eami g se vice Max (fo me ly k ow as HBO Max).243244

A ac io s

U ive sal a d Wa e B o he s c ea ed The Wiza di g Wo ld of Ha y Po e , a Ha y Po e – hemed expa sio o he Isla ds of Adve u e heme pa k a U ive sal O la do Reso i Flo ida. I ope ed o he public o 18 Ju e 2010.245 I i cludes a e-c ea io of Hogsmeade a d seve al ides; i s flagship a ac io is Ha y Po e a d he Fo bidde Jou ey, which exis s wi hi a e-c ea io of Hogwa s School of Wi chc af a d Wiza d y.246

I 2014 U ive sal ope ed a Ha y Po e – hemed a ea a he U ive sal S udios Flo ida heme pa k. I i cludes a e-c ea io of Diago Alley.247 The flagship a ac io is he Ha y Po e a d he Escape f om G i go s olle coas e ide.248 A comple ely fu c io i g full-scale eplica of he Hogwa s Exp ess was c ea ed fo he Diago Alley expa sio , co ec i g Ki g’s C oss S a io a U ive sal S udios o he Hogsmeade s a io a Isla ds of Adve u e.249250 The Wiza di g Wo ld of Ha y Po e ope ed a he U ive sal S udios Hollywood heme pa k ea Los A geles, Califo ia i 2016,251252 a d i U ive sal S udios Japa heme pa k i Osaka, Japa i 2014. The Osaka ve ue i cludes he village of Hogsmeade, Ha y Po e a d he Fo bidde Jou ey ide, a d Fligh of he Hippog iff olle coas e .253254

The Maki g of Ha y Po e is a behi d- he-sce es walki g ou i Lo do fea u i g au he ic se s, cos umes a d p ops f om he film se ies. The a ac io is loca ed a Wa e B os. S udios, Leavesde , whe e all eigh of he Ha y Po e films we e made. Wa e B os. co s uc ed wo ew sou d s ages o house a d showcase he se s f om each of he B i ish-made p oduc io s, followi g a £100 millio i ves me .255 I ope ed o he public i Ma ch 2012.256

Suppleme a y wo ks

Rowli g expa ded he Ha y Po e u ive se wi h sho books p oduced fo cha i ies.257258 I 2001, she eleased Fa as ic Beas s a d Whe e o Fi d Them (a pu po ed Hogwa s ex book) a d Quiddi ch Th ough he Ages (a book Ha y eads fo fu ). P oceeds f om he sale of hese wo books be efi ed he cha i y Comic Relief.259 I 2007, Rowli g composed seve ha dw i e copies of The Tales of Beedle he Ba d, a collec io of fai y ales ha is fea u ed i he fi al ovel, o e of which was auc io ed o aise mo ey fo he Child e ‘s High Level G oup, a fu d fo me ally disabled child e i poo cou ies. The book was published i e a io ally o 4 Decembe 2008.260261 Rowli g also w o e a 800-wo d p equel i 2008 as pa of a fu d aise o ga ised by he bookselle Wa e s o es.262 All h ee of hese books co ai ex a i fo ma io abou he wiza di g wo ld o i cluded i he o igi al ovels.

I 2016, she eleased h ee ew e-books: Hogwa s: A I comple e a d U eliable Guide, Sho S o ies f om Hogwa s of Powe , Poli ics a d Pesky Pol e geis s a d Sho S o ies f om Hogwa s of He oism, Ha dship a d Da ge ous Hobbies.263

Rowli g’s websi e Po e mo e was lau ched i 2012.264 Po e mo e allows use s o be so ed, be chose by hei wa d a d play va ious mi igames. The mai pu pose of he websi e was o allow he use o jou ey h ough he s o y wi h access o co e o evealed by JK Rowli g p eviously, wi h ove 18,000 wo ds of addi io al co e .265 The si e was edesig ed i 2015 as Wiza di gWo ld a d i mai ly focuses o he i fo ma io al eady available, a he ha explo a io .266

Ha y Po e u d de S ei de Weise

A o pha ed boy e olls i a school of wiza d y, whe e he lea s he u h abou himself, his family a d he e ible evil ha hau s he magical wo ld.A o pha ed boy e olls i a school of wiza d y, whe e he lea s he u h abou himself, his family a d he e ible evil ha hau s he magical wo ld.A o pha ed boy e olls i a school of wiza d y, whe e he lea s he u h abou himself, his family a d he e ible evil ha hau s he magical wo ld.

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