wc 2022

wc 2022

wc 2022

wc 2022

۲۰۲۲ FIFA Wo ld Cup The 2022 FIFA Wo ld Cup (A abic: کَأسُ اَلعَالَمِ ۲۰۲۲, oma ized: Kaʾsu al-ʿālami 2022; Gulf A abic: کَاسُ اَلعَالَمِ ٢٠٢٢, oma ized: Kāsu al-ʿālami 2022) is scheduled o be he 22 d u i g of he FIFA Wo ld Cup compe i io , he quad e ial i […]


۲۰۲۲ FIFA Wo ld Cup

The 2022 FIFA Wo ld Cup (A abic: کَأسُ اَلعَالَمِ ۲۰۲۲, oma ized: Kaʾsu al-ʿālami 2022; Gulf A abic: کَاسُ اَلعَالَمِ ٢٠٢٢, oma ized: Kāsu al-ʿālami 2022) is scheduled o be he 22 d u i g of he FIFA Wo ld Cup compe i io , he quad e ial i e a io al me ‘s foo ball champio ship co es ed by he se io a io al eams of he membe associa io s of FIFA. I is scheduled o ake place i Qa a f om 21 Novembe o 18 Decembe 2022. This will be he fi s Wo ld Cup eve o be held i he A ab wo ld,1 a d i will be he seco d Wo ld Cup held e i ely i Asia af e he 2002 ou ame was held i Sou h Ko ea a d Japa .a I addi io , he ou ame will be he las o i volve 32 eams, wi h a i c ease o 48 eams scheduled fo he 2026 ou ame i he U i ed S a es, Mexico, a d Ca ada. Due o Qa a ‘s i e se summe hea , his Wo ld Cup will be held f om la e-Novembe o mid-Decembe , maki g i he fi s ou ame o o be held i May, Ju e, o July; i is o be played i a educed imef ame of a ou d 28 days.2 The fi s ma ch played a he ou ame will be co es ed be wee Se egal a d he Ne he la ds a Al Thumama S adium, Doha. The fi al is due o be held o 18 Decembe 2022, which is also Qa a Na io al Day. The eig i g Wo ld Cup champio s a e F a ce.3

I May 2011, allega io s of co up io wi hi he FIFA se io officials aised ques io s ove he legi imacy of he Wo ld Cup 2022 bei g held i Qa a . The accusa io s of co up io have bee made ela i g o how Qa a wo he igh o hos he eve . A FIFA i e al i ves iga io a d epo clea ed Qa a of a y w o gdoi g, bu chief i ves iga o Michael J. Ga cia has si ce desc ibed FIFA’s epo o his e qui y as co ai i g ume ous ma e ially i comple e a d e o eous ep ese a io s.4 O 27 May 2015, Swiss fede al p osecu o s ope ed a i ves iga io i o co up io a d mo ey lau de i g ela ed o he 2018 a d 2022 Wo ld Cup bids.56 O 6 Augus 2018, fo me FIFA p eside Sepp Bla e claimed ha Qa a had used black ops, sugges i g ha he bid commi ee had chea ed o wi he hos i g igh s.7

Addi io ally, Qa a has faced s o g c i icism due o he ea me of fo eig wo ke s i volved i p epa a io fo he Wo ld Cup, wi h Am es y I e a io al efe i g o fo ced labou a d s a i g ha hu d eds o housa ds of mig a wo ke s have died as a esul of huma igh s abuses, a d ca eless a d i huma e wo k co di io s.89 A i ves iga io by he Gua dia ewspape claimed ha ma y wo ke s a e de ied food a d wa e , have hei ide i y pape s ake away f om hem, a d ha hey a e o paid o ime o a all, maki g some of hem i effec slaves. The Gua dia has es ima ed ha up o 4,000 wo ke s may die due o lax safe y a d o he causes by he ime he compe i io is held. Be wee 2015 a d 2021, he Qa a i gove me adop ed ew labou efo ms o imp ove wo ki g co di io s, i cludi g a mi imum wage fo all wo ke s a d he emoval of he kafala sys em. Am es y I e a io al efe ed o hese measu es as a sig ifica s ep owa ds p o ec i g mig a wo ke s.

O 20 May 2020, he Wo ld Cup o ga izi g commi ee sec e a y ge e al Hassa Al Thawadi aised a co ce ha he global eco omy could wi ess a ecessio pe iod due o he o goi g COVID-19 pa demic, which will u i a d impac he abili y of foo ball fa s o affo d aveli g a d pa icipa i g i he celeb a io s of he 2022 FIFA Wo ld Cup.

Co e s

Hos selec io

The biddi g p ocedu e o hos he 2018 a d 2022 FIFA Wo ld Cups bega i Ja ua y 2009, a d a io al associa io s had u il 2 Feb ua y 2009 o egis e hei i e es .10 I i ially, eleve bids we e made fo he 2018 FIFA Wo ld Cup, bu Mexico la e wi hd ew f om p oceedi gs,1112 a d I do esia’s bid was ejec ed by FIFA i Feb ua y 2010 af e he I do esia Foo ball Associa io failed o submi a le e of I do esia gove me gua a ee o suppo he bid.13 I do esia officials had o uled ou a bid fo he 2026 FIFA Wo ld Cup, u il Qa a was awa ded he 2022 ou ame .ci a io eeded Du i g he biddi g p ocess, all o -UEFA a io s g adually wi hd ew hei 2018 bids, hus gua a eei g ha a UEFA a io would hos he 2018 ou ame a d he eby maki g UEFA a io s i eligible fo he 2022 bid.ci a io eeded

I he e d, he e we e five bids fo he 2022 FIFA Wo ld Cup: Aus alia, Japa , Qa a , Sou h Ko ea, a d he U i ed S a es. The we y- wo membe FIFA Execu ive Commi ee co ve ed i Zü ich o 2 Decembe 2010 o vo e o selec he hos s of bo h ou ame s.14 Two FIFA execu ive commi ee membe s we e suspe ded befo e he vo e i ela io o allega io s of co up io ega di g hei vo es.15 The decisio o hos he 2022 Wo ld Cup i Qa a , which was g aded as havi g high ope a io al isk,16 ge e a ed c i icism f om media comme a o s.17 I has bee c i icised by ma y as bei g pa of he FIFA co up io sca dals.18

The vo i g pa e s we e as follows:19

The e have bee allega io s of b ibe y a d co up io i he selec io p ocess i volvi g FIFA’s execu ive commi ee membe s. These allega io s a e bei g i ves iga ed by FIFA .mw-pa se -ou pu div.c oss efe e cepaddi g-lef :0(see § Biddi g co up io allega io s, below).

Qa a is he smalles a io by a ea eve o have bee awa ded a FIFA Wo ld Cup – he ex smalles by a ea is Swi ze la d, hos of he 1954 FIFA Wo ld Cup, which is mo e ha h ee imes as la ge as Qa a a d o ly eeded o hos 16 eams i s ead of he cu e 32.

Qa a also became o ly he seco d cou y ( o i cludi g U uguay, as hos s of he fi s -eve Wo ld Cup) o be awa ded a FIFA Wo ld Cup despi e havi g eve qualified fo a p evious edi io . Japa was p eviously awa ded co-hos i g igh s of he 2002 FIFA Wo ld Cup alo gside Sou h Ko ea wi hou eve havi g qualified fo he fi als, al hough hey subseque ly qualified fo he 1998 FIFA Wo ld Cup.

Some i ves iga io s fou d ha Qa a sough a edge i secu i g hos i g by hi i g a fo me CIA office u ed p iva e co ac o , Kevi Chalke , o spy o ival bid eams a d key foo ball officials who picked he wi e i 2010.20

Possible expa sio

O 12 Ap il 2018, CONMEBOL eques ed ha FIFA expa d he 2022 FIFA Wo ld Cup f om 32 o 48 eams, fou yea s befo e he 2026 FIFA Wo ld Cup as i i ially pla ed.2122 FIFA P eside Gia i I fa i o exp essed willi g ess o co side he eques .23 Howeve , he FIFA co g ess ejec ed he eques sho ly befo e he begi i g of he 2018 FIFA Wo ld Cup. I fa i o said he global foo ball gove i g body would o discuss he possibili y of havi g a 48- eam Wo ld Cup, a d ha hey would fi s discuss he ma e wi h he hos cou y.24

I Ma ch 2019, a FIFA feasibili y s udy co cluded ha i was possible o expa d he ou ame o 48 eams, albei wi h he assis a ce of o e o mo e eighbou i g cou ies a d wo o fou addi io al ve ues. FIFA also said ha while i ca o ule ou legal ac io f om losi g bidde s by cha gi g he fo ma of he ou ame , he s udy said i ‘co cluded ha he isk was low’. FIFA a d Qa a would have explo ed possible joi p oposals o submi o he FIFA Cou cil a d he FIFA Co g ess la e i Ju e. Had a joi p oposal bee submi ed, FIFA’s membe associa io s would have vo ed o he fi al decisio a he 69 h FIFA Co g ess i Pa is, F a ce, by 5 Ju e.2526 Howeve , o 22 May, FIFA a ou ced i would o expa d he ou ame .27

Teams

Qualifica io

FIFA’s six co i e al co fede a io s o ga ise hei ow qualifyi g compe i io s. All FIFA membe associa io s, of which he e a e cu e ly 211, we e eligible o e e qualifica io . Qa a , as hos s, qualified au oma ically fo he ou ame . Howeve , he AFC obliged Qa a o pa icipa e i he Asia qualifyi g s age as he fi s wo ou ds also ac as qualifica io fo he 2023 AFC Asia Cup.28 Si ce he Qa a is eached he fi al s age as wi e s i hei g oup, Leba o , he fif h-bes seco d place eam, adva ced i s ead.29 The eig i g Wo ld Cup champio s F a ce also we h ough qualifyi g s ages as o mal.30 Sai Lucia i i ially e e ed qualifica io bu wi hd ew f om i befo e hei fi s ma ch. No h Ko ea wi hd ew f om he qualifyi g ou d due o safe y co ce s ela ed o he COVID-19 pa demic. Ame ica Samoa a d Samoa bo h wi hd ew befo e he OFC d aw. To ga wi hd ew af e he 2022 Hu ga To ga–Hu ga Ha’apai e up io a d su ami. Due o COVID-19 ou b eaks i hei squads, Va ua u a d Cook Isla ds also wi hd ew.

As of 5 Ju e 2022, 30 a io s have qualified fo he fi als, i cludi g 22 ha compe ed a he p evious ou ame i 2018. Qa a a e he o ly eam maki g hei debu i he FIFA Wo ld Cup, becomi g he fi s hos s o make hei ou ame debu si ce I aly i 1934. As a esul , he 2022 ou ame is he fi s Wo ld Cup i which o e of he eams ha ea ed a spo h ough qualifica io we e maki g hei debu . The Ne he la ds, Ecuado , Gha a, Came oo a d he U i ed S a es e u ed o he ou ame af e missi g he 2018 ou ame . Ca ada e u ed af e 36 yea s, hei o ly p io appea a ce bei g i 1986.31 Wales made hei fi s appea a ce af e 64 yea s, hei o ly pa icipa io bei g i 1958.

Fou – ime champio s a d wi e s of UEFA Eu o 2020, I aly, failed o qualify fo a seco d successive Wo ld Cup fo he fi s ime i hei his o y, losi g i he qualifica io play-off semi-fi als agai s No h Macedo ia.32 The I alia s we e he o ly fo me champio s ha failed o qualify. The p evious Wo ld Cup hos s, Russia, we e disqualified f om compe i g due o he Russia i vasio of Uk ai e.33 Chile, he 2015 a d 2016 Copa Amé ica wi e s, jus like I aly, also failed o qualify fo he seco d co secu ive ime. Nige ia we ou o Gha a o away goals i CAF’s fi al playoff ou d, havi g qualified fo he p evious h ee Wo ld Cups a d six ou of he las seve . Teams who qualified fo he 2018 Wo ld Cup such as Egyp , Pa ama, Colombia, Icela d a d Swede also did o qualify fo he 2022 ou ame .

AFC (5 1)

CAF (5)

CONCACAF (3 1)

CONMEBOL (4 1)

OFC (0 1)

UEFA (13)

D aw

The fi al d aw was held a he Doha Exhibi io a d Co ve io Ce e i Doha, Qa a ,34 o 1 Ap il 2022,35 19:00 AST, p io o he comple io of qualifica io . The wo wi e s of he i e -co fede a io play-offs a d he wi e of he Pa h A of he UEFA play-offs we e o k ow a he ime of he d aw.36

Fo he d aw, he 32 eams we e alloca ed i o fou po s based o he FIFA Me ‘s Wo ld Ra ki gs of 31 Ma ch 2022.37 Po o e co ai ed he hos s Qa a (who we e au oma ically assig ed o posi io A1) a d he bes seve eams. Po wo co ai ed he ex bes eigh eams, wi h he ex bes eigh eams i o po 3. Po 4 co ai ed he five lowes – a ked eams, alo g wi h he placeholde s fo he wo i e -co fede a io play-off wi e s a d he UEFA Pa h A play-off wi e . Teams f om he same co fede a io could o be d aw i o he same g oup excep fo UEFA eams, fo which he e was a leas o e a d o mo e ha wo pe g oup. This p i ciple also applied o he placeholde eams, wi h co s ai s applyi g based o he co fede a io of bo h po e ial wi e s of each play-off ie. The d aw s a ed wi h po 1 a d e ded wi h po 4, wi h each eam selec ed he alloca ed i o he fi s available g oup alphabe ically. The posi io fo he eam wi hi he g oup would he be d aw (fo he pu pose of he ma ch schedule), wi h he po 1 eams au oma ically d aw i o posi io 1 of each g oup.38 The po s fo he d aw a e show below.39

 Qa a (51) (hos s)  B azil (1)  Belgium (2)  F a ce (3)  A ge i a (4)  E gla d (5)  Spai (7)  Po ugal (8)

 Mexico (9)  Ne he la ds (10)  De ma k (11)  Ge ma y (12)  U uguay (13)   Swi ze la d (14)  U i ed S a es (15)  C oa ia (16)

 Se egal (20)  I a (21)  Japa (23)  Mo occo (24)  Se bia (25)  Pola d (26)  Sou h Ko ea (29)  Tu isia (35)

 Wales (18)d  Came oo (37)  Ca ada (38)  Ecuado (46)  Saudi A abia (49)  Gha a (60) AFC v CONMEBOL wi e s CONCACAF v OFC wi e s

Officia i g

O 19 May 2022, FIFA a ou ced he lis of 36 efe ees, a d 69 assis a efe ees a d 24 video assis a efe ees fo he ou ame . Of he 36 efe ees, FIFA i cluded wo each f om A ge i a, B azil, E gla d a d F a ce.4041 Fo he fi s ime wome efe ees will efe ee games a a majo me ‘s ou ame .

S épha ie F appa f om F a ce, Rwa da Salima Muka sa ga a d Yoshimi Yamashi a f om Japa became he fi s female efe ees o be appoi ed o a me ‘s Wo ld Cup.42 They will be joi ed by h ee female assis a efe ees, also a fi s . F appa ove saw he 2019 FIFA Wome ‘s Wo ld Cup Fi al.43 Gambia efe ee Baka y Gassama a d A ge i e assis a efe ee Jua Pablo Bela i a e amo g he officials o se ve a hei hi d Wo ld Cup. Bela i was a assis a efe ee i he 2018 fi al.444546 O he e u i g officials i clude efe ees Césa A u o Ramos of Mexico a d Ja y Sikazwe of Zambia, a d I a ia assis a efe ee Mohammad eza Ma sou i.474849

Ve ues

The fi s five p oposed ve ues fo he Wo ld Cup we e u veiled a he begi i g of Ma ch 2010. The cou y i e ds fo he s adiums o eflec he his o ical a d cul u al aspec s of Qa a , a d fo he desig s o mee he followi g e ms of efe e ce: legacy, comfo , accessibili y, a d sus ai abili y.50 The s adiums will be equipped wi h cooli g sys ems ha aim o educe empe a u es wi hi he s adium by up o 20 °C (36 °F), bu i is o ye k ow if his will ac ually wo k i he ope -ai s adiums. Thei ma ke i g i cludes s a eme s desc ibi g he s adiums as Ze o Was e, a d he uppe ie s of he s adiums will be disassembled af e he Wo ld Cup a d do a ed o cou ies wi h less developed spo s i f as uc u e.5152 Qa a aspi es o be complia a d ce ified by he Global Sus ai abili y Assessme Sys em (GSAS) fo all he Wo ld Cup s adiums. All of he five s adium p ojec s lau ched have bee desig ed by Ge ma a chi ec Albe Spee Pa e s.53 The Al Bay S adium will be he o ly i doo s adium of he eigh used.54

A epo eleased o 9 Decembe 2010 quo ed FIFA P eside Sepp Bla e as s a i g ha o he a io s could hos some ma ches du i g he Wo ld Cup. Howeve , o specific cou ies we e amed i he epo .55 Bla e added ha a y such decisio mus be ake by Qa a fi s a d he e do sed by FIFA’s execu ive commi ee.56 P i ce Ali bi Al Hussei of Jo da old he Aus alia Associa ed P ess ha holdi g games i Bah ai , U i ed A ab Emi a es, a d possibly Saudi A abia would help o i co po a e he people of he egio du i g he ou ame .57

Acco di g o a epo eleased i Ap il 2013 by Me ill Ly ch, he i ves me ba ki g divisio of Ba k of Ame ica, he o ga ise s i Qa a have eques ed FIFA o app ove a smalle umbe of s adiums due o he g owi g cos s.58 Bloombe g.com said ha Qa a wishes o cu he umbe of ve ues o eigh o i e f om he welve o igi ally pla ed.59

Al hough, by Ap il 2017, FIFA had ye o fi alise he umbe of s adiums Qa a mus have eadied i five yea s’ ime, Qa a ‘s Sup eme Commi ee fo Delive y a d Legacy said i expec ed he e would be eigh i a d ea Doha (wi h he excep io of Al Kho ).6061

I Ja ua y 2019, I fa i o said ha FIFA was explo i g he possibili y of havi g eighbou i g cou ies hos ma ches du i g he ou ame , i o de o educe poli ical e sio s.62

S adium 974, fo me ly k ow as Ras Abu Aboud, is he seve h FIFA Wo ld Cup 2022 ve ue o be comple ed by he Sup eme Commi ee fo Delive y a d Legacy (SC). I s ame comes f om he umbe of shippi g co ai e s used i i s co s uc io a d Qa a ‘s i e a io al diali g code. The s adium will hos seve ma ches du i g he eve .63

Schedule

The ma ch schedule was co fi med by FIFA o 15 July 2020.71 The o ly g oup s age fix u e wi h a ve ue a d ime co fi med was o he ope i g day fea u i g he hos s Qa a , will be played o 21 Novembe 2022 a he Al Bay S adium. Du i g he g oup s age, fou ma ches will be played each day, wi h kick-off imes bei g 13:00, 16:00, 19:00, a d 22:00 fo he fi s wo ou ds, a d 18:00 a d 22:00 fo he simul a eous kick-offs of he las ou d a d fo k ockou s age ma ches. The hi d-place ma ch will be played o 17 Decembe 2022 a he Khalifa I e a io al S adium, a d he fi al will be played o 18 Decembe 2022 a he Lusail Ico ic S adium, bo h a 18:00.72

U like p evious ou ame s whe e he ma ch ve ues a d kick-off imes fo each fix u e a e se p io o he d aw, he assig me of g oup fix u es fo each ma chday o a specific ve ue a d kick-off ime was o ly be made af e he g oup s age d aw a d he eams of each specific fix u e a e k ow . This is due o he close p oximi y of he ve ues, which allowed he o ga ise s o op imise s adium alloca io fo spec a o s a d kick-off imes fo elevisio audie ces.71 The g oup s age ma ches fo each g oup will be alloca ed o he followi g s adiums:72

FIFA co fi med he g oup s age ve ue a d kick-off imes o 1 Ap il 2022, followi g he d aw.7374

G oup s age

G oup A

G oup B

G oup C

G oup D

G oup E

G oup F

G oup G

G oup H

K ockou s age

I he k ockou s age, if a ma ch is level a he e d of o mal playi g ime, ex a ime is played ( wo pe iods of 15 mi u es each) a d followed, if ecessa y, by a pe al y shoo -ou o de e mi e he wi e s.75

B acke

Rou d of 16

Qua e -fi als

Semi-fi als

Thi d place play-off

Fi al

Ma ke i g

B a di g

The official emblem was desig ed by Lisbo -based B a dia Ce al b a di g age cy a d u veiled o 3 Sep embe 2019 du i g simul a eous eve s a he Doha Towe , Ka a a Cul u al Village Amphi hea e, Mshei eb Dow ow Doha, a d Zuba ah. I is desig ed o esemble he ou ame ophy, he i fi i y symbol, a d he umbe 8, eflec i g upo he i e co ec ed eve a d he eigh hos s adiums. I also evokes image y of shawls o sig ify he ou ame ‘s wi e scheduli g, a d co ai s waves esembli g dese du es. The ypog aphy of he emblem’s wo dma k i co po a es kashida— he p ac ice of elo ga i g ce ai pa s of cha ac e s i A abic sc ip o p ovide ypog aphical emphasis.767778

Masco

The ou ame ‘s official masco was u veiled o 1 Ap il 2022, du i g he g oup s age d aw. I s ame is La’eeb, which is a A abic wo d mea i g supe -skilled playe . The official websi e of FIFA says: La’eeb will be k ow fo his you hful spi i ; sp eadi g joy a d co fide ce eve ywhe e he goes, a d he official backs o y of he cha ac e , published he e, claims ha i comes f om a pa allel wo ld whe e ou ame masco s live, a wo ld whe e ideas a d c ea ivi y fo m he basis of cha ac e s ha live i he mi ds of eve yo e.79

Ma ch ball

The official ma ch ball, he Al Rihla, was u veiled o 30 Ma ch 2022. I was mai ly i spi ed by he cul u e, a chi ec u e, ico ic boa s a d flag of Qa a . I A abic, he wo d Al Rihla mea s he jou ey. The ball was desig ed wi h sus ai abili y as a p io i y, maki g i he fi s eve official ma ch ball c ea ed wi h wa e -based glues a d i ks.

As he game is ge i g fas e a d speeds up, Adidas used some ew fea u es, allowi g o p ovide speed a d imp ove he accu acy of he ball.80

Official so g

The official so g of he ou ame is Hayya Hayya (Be e Toge he ), pe fo med by T i idad Ca do a, Davido a d AISHA, eleased o 1 Ap il 2022 alo g wi h he music video.81

Co ove sies

A umbe of g oups a d media ou le s have exp essed co ce ove he sui abili y of Qa a o hos he eve ,8283 wi h ega d o i e p e a io s of huma igh s, pa icula ly wo ke co di io s a d he igh s of fa s i he LGBT commu i y because of he illegali y of homosexuali y i Qa a .83848586 I Decembe 2020, Qa a allowed he ai bow flags a he 2022 Wo ld Cup.87 Hassa Abdulla al Thawadi, chief execu ive of he cou y’s 2022 Wo ld Cup bid, said ha Qa a would pe mi alcohol co sump io du i g he eve ,8889 eve hough d i ki g i public is o pe mi ed, as he cou y’s legal sys em is based o Sha ia.90

The selec io of Qa a as he hos cou y has bee co ove sial; FIFA officials we e accused of co up io a d allowi g Qa a o buy he Wo ld Cup,91 he ea me of co s uc io wo ke s was called i o ques io by huma igh s g oups,92 a d he high cos s eeded o make he pla s a eali y we e c i icised. The clima e co di io s caused some o call hos i g he ou ame i Qa a i feasible, wi h i i ial pla s fo ai -co di io ed s adiums givi g way o a po e ial da e swi ch f om summe o wi e .

I May 2014, Sepp Bla e , who was FIFA p eside a he ime of he selec io bu la e ba ed fo illegal payme s, ema ked ha awa di g he Wo ld Cup o Qa a was a mis ake because of he ex eme hea .9394 Howeve , while add essi g delega es f om Af ica a d Asia co fede a io s, Bla e said allega io s of co up io a d some of he c i icism, i cludi g hose f om spo so s, we e ve y much li ked o acism a d disc imi a io .95

Mig a wo ke s, slave y allega io s a d dea hs

The issue of mig a wo ke s’ igh s also a ac ed a e io , wi h a 2013 i ves iga io by The Gua dia ewspape claimi g ha ma y wo ke s we e de ied food a d wa e , had hei ide i y pape s ake away f om hem, a d ha hey we e o paid o ime o a all, maki g some of hem i effec slaves. The Gua dia es ima ed ha , by he ime he compe i io would be held, wi hou efo ms of he kafala sys em,96 ou of he 2 millio -s o g mig a wo kfo ce97 up o 4,000 wo ke s could die due o lax safe y a d o he causes.92 These claims we e based upo he fac ha 522 Nepalese98 wo ke s a d ove 700 I dia 96 wo ke s had died si ce 2010, whe Qa a ‘s bid as Wo ld Cup’s hos had bee wo , abou 250 I dia wo ke s dyi g each yea .99 Give ha he e we e half a millio I dia wo ke s i Qa a , he I dia gove me said ha was qui e a o mal umbe of dea hs.99

I 2015, a c ew of fou jou alis s f om he BBC we e a es ed a d held fo wo days af e hey a emp ed o epo o he co di io of wo ke s i he cou y.100 The epo e s had bee i vi ed o visi he cou y as gues s of he Gove me of Qa a .100

The Wall S ee Jou al epo ed i Ju e 2015 he I e a io al T ade U io Co fede a io ‘s claim ha ove 1,200 wo ke s had died while wo ki g o i f as uc u e a d eal-es a e p ojec s ela ed o he Wo ld Cup, a d he Qa a Gove me ‘s cou e -claim ha o e had.101 The BBC la e epo ed ha his of e -ci ed figu e of 1,200 wo ke s havi g died i Wo ld Cup co s uc io i Qa a be wee 2011 a d 2013 is o co ec , a d ha he 1,200 umbe is i s ead ep ese i g dea hs f om all I dia s a d Nepalese wo ki g i Qa a , o jus of hose wo ke s i volved i he p epa a io fo he Wo ld Cup, a d o jus of co s uc io wo ke s.99 Mos Qa a i a io als avoid doi g ma ual wo k o low-skilled jobs; addi io ally, hey a e give p efe e ce a he wo kplace.102 Michael va P aag, p eside of he Royal Du ch Foo ball Associa io , eques ed he FIFA Execu ive Commi ee o p essu e Qa a ove hose allega io s o e su e be e wo ke s’ co di io s. He also s a ed ha a ew vo e o he a ibu io of he Wo ld Cup o Qa a would have o ake place if he co up io allega io s we e o be p oved.103

I Ma ch 2016, Am es y I e a io al accused Qa a of usi g fo ced labou , fo ci g he employees o live i poo co di io s, a d wi hholdi g hei wages a d passpo s. I also accused FIFA of faili g o s op he s adium f om bei g buil o huma igh abuses. Mig a wo ke s old Am es y abou ve bal abuse a d h ea s hey eceived af e complai i g abou o bei g paid fo up o seve al mo hs. Nepali wo ke s we e eve de ied leave o visi hei family af e he 2015 Nepal ea hquake.104

I Oc obe 2017, he I e a io al T ade U io Co fede a io said ha Qa a had sig ed a ag eeme o imp ove he si ua io of mo e ha 2 millio mig a wo ke s i he cou y. Acco di g o he ITUC, he ag eeme p ovided fo es ablishi g subs a ial efo ms i labou sys em, i cludi g e di g he Kafala sys em. The ITUC also s a ed ha he ag eeme would posi ively affec he ge e al si ua io of wo ke s, especially hose who wo k o he 2022 FIFA Wo ld Cup i f as uc u e p ojec s. The wo ke s will o lo ge eed hei employe ‘s pe missio o leave he cou y o cha ge hei jobs.105

I Feb ua y 2019, Am es y I e a io al ques io ed whe he Qa a would comple e he p omised labou efo ms befo e he s a of he Wo ld Cup, a se ime ha FIFA backed. Am es y I e a io al fou d ha abuses we e s ill occu i g despi e he a io aki g some s eps o imp ove labou igh s.106

I May 2019, a i ves iga io by he UK’s Daily Mi o ewspape discove ed some of he 28,000 wo ke s o he s adiums a e bei g paid 750 Qa a i Riyal pe mo h, which is equivale o £۱۹۰ pe mo h o 99 pe ce a hou fo a ypical 48-hou week.107

He d iks G aszode , he u f supplie fo he 2006 Wo ld Cup a d fo he Eu opea Champio ships i 2008 a d 2016, efused o supply Qa a wi h Wo ld Cup u f. Acco di g o compa y spokespe so Ge die Vloe , o e easo fo his decisio was he accusa io s of huma igh s abuses.108

I Ap il 2020, he gove me of Qa a p ovided $824 millio o pay he wages of mig a wo ke s i qua a i e o u de goi g ea me fo COVID-19.109110

I Augus 2020, he Qa a i gove me a ou ced a mo hly mi imum wage fo all wo ke s of 1,000 iyals (US$275), a i c ease f om he p evious empo a y mi imum wage of 750 iyals a mo h.111112 The ew laws we i o effec i Ma ch 2021.113 The I e a io al Labou O ga iza io said Qa a is he fi s cou y i he egio o i oduce a o -disc imi a o y mi imum wage, which is a pa of a se ies of his o ical efo ms of he cou y’s labou laws,114 while he campaig g oup Mig a Righ s said he ew mi imum wage was oo low o mee mig a wo ke s’ eed wi h Qa a ‘s high cos of livi g.115 I addi io , employe s a e obliga ed o pay 300 iyals fo food a d 500 iyals fo accommoda io , if hey do o p ovide employees wi h hese di ec ly. The No Objec io Ce ifica e was emoved so ha employees ca cha ge jobs wi hou co se of he cu e employe . A Mi imum Wage Commi ee was also fo med o check o he impleme a io .116 These efo ms emoved he kafala sys em a d a co ac ual sys em was i oduced.97117

I Ma ch 2021, a i ves iga ive epo published by The Gua dia used da a f om embassies a d a io al fo eig employme offices o es ima e mig a wo ke dea h oll si ce Wo ld Cup was awa ded o Qa a . Be wee 2010 a d la e 2020 ove 6,500 mig a wo ke s f om I dia, Ba gladesh, Pakis a , Nepal a d S i La ka have died i Qa a .118

A he 2022 FIFA Co g ess i Doha, Lise Klave ess—head of he No wegia Foo ball Fede a io —c i icised he o ga isa io fo havi g awa ded he Wo ld Cup o Qa a , ci i g he va ious co ove sies su ou di g he ou ame . She a gued ha i 2010 Wo ld Cups we e awa ded by FIFA i u accep able ways wi h u accep able co seque ces. Huma igh s, equali y, democ acy: he co e i e es s of foo ball we e o i he s a i g XI u il ma y yea s la e . These basic igh s we e p essu ed o o he field as subs i u es by ou side voices. FIFA has add essed hese issues bu he e’s s ill a lo g way o go.119120 Hassa al-Thawadi, sec e a y ge e al of Qa a 2022, c i icised he ema ks fo ig o i g he cou y’s ece labou efo ms.120

The Eu opea U io ’s A ual Repo o Huma Righ s a d Democ acy i he Wo ld 2021 o ed Qa a ’s labou law efo ms ha had i co po a ed o -disc imi a o y mi imum wage sys ems a d emoval of he Kafala sys em i 2021.121

Move o Novembe a d Decembe

Owi g o he clima e i Qa a , co ce s we e exp essed ove holdi g he Wo ld Cup i i s adi io al imef ame of Ju e a d July. I Oc obe 2013, a ask fo ce was commissio ed o co side al e a ive da es a d epo af e he 2014 FIFA Wo ld Cup i B azil.122 O 24 Feb ua y 2015, he FIFA Task Fo ce p oposed ha he ou ame be played f om la e Novembe o la e Decembe 2022,123 o avoid he summe hea be wee May a d Sep embe a d also avoid clashi g wi h he 2022 Wi e Olympics i Feb ua y, he 2022 Wi e Pa alympics i Ma ch a d Ramada i Ap il.124125

The o io of s agi g he ou ame i Novembe is co ove sial si ce i would i e fe e wi h he egula seaso schedules of some domes ic leagues a ou d he wo ld. Comme a o s have o ed he clash wi h he Wes e Ch is mas seaso is likely o cause dis up io , whils he e is co ce abou how sho he ou ame is i e ded o be.126 FIFA execu ive commi ee membe Theo Zwa zige said ha awa di g he 2022 Wo ld Cup o Qa a ‘s dese s a e was a bla a mis ake.127 F a k Lowy, chai ma of Foo ball Fede a io Aus alia, said ha if he 2022 Wo ld Cup we e moved o Novembe a d hus upse he schedule of he A-League, hey would seek compe sa io f om FIFA.128 Richa d Scudamo e, chief execu ive of he P emie League, s a ed ha hey would co side legal ac io agai s FIFA because a move would i e fe e wi h he P emie League’s popula Ch is mas a d New Yea fix u e p og amme.129 O 19 Ma ch 2015, FIFA sou ces co fi med ha he fi al would be played o 18 Decembe .130

Biddi g co up io allega io s

Qa a has faced g owi g p essu e ove i s hos i g of he Wo ld Cup i ela io o allega io s ove he ole of fo me op foo ball official Mohammed bi Hammam played i secu i g he bid.131 A fo me employee of he Qa a bid eam allegedyea   eeded ha seve al Af ica officials we e paid $1.5 millio by Qa a .132 She e ac ed he claims, bu la e said ha she was coe ced o do so by Qa a i bid officials.133134 I Ma ch 2014, i was discove ed ha disg aced fo me CONCACAF p eside Jack Wa e a d his family we e paid almos $2 millio f om a fi m li ked o Qa a ‘s successful campaig . The Fede al Bu eau of I ves iga io (FBI) is i ves iga i g Wa e a d his alleged li ks o he Qa a i bid.135

Five of FIFA’s six p ima y spo so s, So y, Adidas, Visa, Hyu dai, a d Coca-Cola, have called upo FIFA o i ves iga e he claims.136137 The Su day Times published b ibe y allega io s based o a leak of millio s of sec e docume s.138 Jim Boyce, vice-p eside of FIFA, has go e o eco d s a i g he would suppo a e-vo e o fi d a ew hos if he co up io allega io s a e p ove .139140 FIFA comple ed a le g hy i ves iga io i o hese allega io s a d a epo clea ed Qa a of a y w o gdoi g. Despi e he claims, he Qa a is i sis ha he co up io allega io s a e bei g d ive by e vy a d mis us while Sepp Bla e said i is fuelled by acism i he B i ish media.141142

I he 2015 FIFA co up io case, Swiss officials, ope a i g u de i fo ma io f om he U i ed S a es Depa me of Jus ice, a es ed ma y se io FIFA officials i Zu ich, Swi ze la d. They also seized physical a d elec o ic eco ds f om FIFA’s mai headqua e s. The a es s co i ued i he U i ed S a es, whe e seve al FIFA office s we e a es ed, a d FIFA buildi gs we e aided. The a es s we e made o he i fo ma io of a leas a $150 millio (USD) co up io a d b ibe y sca dal.143

O 7 Ju e 2015, Phaed a Almajid, he fo me media office fo he Qa a bid eam, claimed ha he allega io s would esul i Qa a o hos i g he Wo ld Cup.144 I a i e view published o he same day, Dome ico Scala, he head of FIFA’s Audi a d Complia ce Commi ee, s a ed ha should he e be evide ce ha he awa ds o Qa a a d Russia came o ly because of bough vo es, he he awa ds could be ca celled.145146

Qa a diploma ic c isis

O 5 Ju e 2017, Saudi A abia, Egyp , Bah ai , he U i ed A ab Emi a es a d Yeme cu diploma ic ies wi h Qa a , accusi g i of des abilisi g he egio a d suppo i g e o is g oups. Saudi A abia, Yeme , Mau i a ia, he U i ed A ab Emi a es, Bah ai , a d Egyp , i a le e , asked FIFA o eplace Qa a as Wo ld Cup Hos , calli g he cou y as a base of e o ism.147 I Oc obe 2017, Lieu e a Ge e al Dhahi Khalfa Tamim, depu y head of Dubai Police a d Ge e al Secu i y, w o e abou he c isis o Twi e i A abic; sayi g If he Wo ld Cup leaves Qa a , Qa a ‘s c isis will be ove … because he c isis is c ea ed o ge away f om i . Acco di g o media epo s, he message appea ed o imply ha he Saudi-led blockade of Qa a was o ly e ac ed due o Qa a hos i g he wo ld’s bigges foo ball eve .148 I eac io o media cove age of his wee , Dhahi Khalfa wee ed; I said Qa a is faki g a c isis a d claims i ‘s besieged so i could ge away f om he bu de s of buildi g expe sive spo s facili ies fo he Wo ld Cup.149 UAE Mi is e of S a e fo Fo eig Affai s A wa Ga gash said Dhahi Khalfa had bee misu de s ood i media cove age. I espo se, Ga gash cla ified ha Qa a ‘s hos i g of Wo ld Cup 2022 should i clude a epudia io of policies suppo i g ex emism e o ism.150

Russia pa icipa io

O 9 Decembe 2019, he Wo ld A i-Dopi g Age cy ha ded Russia a fou -yea ba f om all majo spo i g eve s, af e RUSADA was fou d o -complia fo ha di g ove ma ipula ed lab da a o i ves iga o s.151 The Russia a io al eam we e s ill pe mi ed o e e qualifica io , as he ba o ly applied o he fi al ou ame o decide he wo ld champio s. A eam ep ese i g Russia, which uses he Russia flag a d a hem, could o pa icipa e u de he WADA decisio whils he ba is ac ive.152 The decisio was appealed o he Cou of A bi a io fo Spo ,153 a d o 17 Decembe 2020, Russia eams we e ba ed f om compe i g a wo ld champio ships o ga ised o sa c io ed by a WADA sig a o y u il 16 Decembe 2022, he day befo e he hi d-place playoff.154

Russia’s pa icipa io was fu he h ow i o doub af e he 2022 Russia i vasio of Uk ai e. O 24 Feb ua y, he h ee eams i Russia’s qualifyi g pa h — Czech Republic, Pola d, a d Swede — a ou ced hei u willi g ess o play a y ma ches i Russia e i o y.155 The boyco was ex e ded by Pola d a d Swede o a y qualifyi g games o 26 Feb ua y, a d by he Czech Republic o e day la e .156157158

O 27 Feb ua y 2022, FIFA a ou ced a umbe of sa c io s impac i g Russia’s pa icipa io i i e a io al foo ball. Russia was p ohibi ed f om hos i g i e a io al compe i io s, a d he a io al eam had bee o de ed o play all home ma ches behi d closed doo s i eu al cou ies. U de hese sa c io s, Russia would o be allowed o compe e u de he cou y’s ame, flag, o a io al a hem; simila ly o he Russia a hle es’ pa icipa io i eve s such as he Olympics,159 he eam would compe e u de he abb evia io of hei a io al fede a io , he Russia Foo ball U io (RFU), a he ha Russia.160 The ex day, howeve , FIFA decided o suspe d Russia f om i e a io al compe i io s u il fu he o ice, i cludi g i s pa icipa io i he 2022 FIFA Wo ld Cup.161

LGBT igh s

Co ce s have bee aised abou he igh s of membe s of he LGBT commu i y who a e d he ou ame , as homosexuali y is illegal i Qa a , a d also pu ishable by dea h fo Muslims u de Sha ia.83162 Af e Qa a was chose as hos , Bla e was c i icised fo joki gly elli g a epo e i qui i g abou hese co ce s ha gay a e dees should ef ai f om a y sexual ac ivi ies.163164 I apology fo he s a eme , Bla e assu ed ha FIFA did o ole a e disc imi a io , a d s a ed ha wha we wa o do is ope his game o eve ybody, a d o ope i o all cul u es, a d his is wha we a e doi g i 2022.165 I 2013, Hassa al-Thawadi s a ed ha eve yo e would be welcome a Qa a 2022, bu wa ed agai s public displays of affec io because hey we e o pa of ou cul u e a d adi io .166

I Novembe 2021, Aus alia foo balle Josh Cavallo, who came ou as gay i Oc obe 2021,167 said he would be af aid o avel o Qa a o play. Nasse Al Kha e , head of he ou ame ‘s o ga isi g commi ee, eplied ha Cavallo would be welcome i he cou y.168

Qa a i officials i i ially s a ed i Decembe 2020 ha , i acco da ce wi h FIFA’s i clusio policy, i would o es ic he display of p o-LGBT image y (such as ai bow flags) a ma ches du i g he Wo ld Cup.169 Howeve , i Ap il 2022, a se io secu i y official ove seei g he ou ame s a ed ha he e we e pla s o co fisca e p ide flags f om spec a o s—allegedly as a safe y measu e o p o ec hem f om al e ca io s wi h spec a o s ha a e a i-LGBT. Fa e e wo k c i icised he epo , a gui g ha ac io s agai s he LGBT commu i y by he s a e we e of a g ea e co ce o hose a e di g he Wo ld Cup ha he ac io s of i dividuals.170171 I Ap il 2022, Majo Ge e al Abdulaziz Abdullah Al A sa i (se io leade ove seei g secu i y fo he FIFA Wo ld Cup) decla ed i a i e view ha LGBT couples a e welcome i he a io a d is owa ds he ove p omo io of LGBT f eedom as hey a e symbolized by he ai bow flags.172

Sus ai abili y

FIFA G ee Ca d fo he Pla e

۴ Ju 2022

wc 2022

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  • 5 ژوئن 2022
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